## Meghalaya State Board

## PHYSICS-XI

#### UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement

- Units and measurements
- SI units,
- measurement of length,
- mass,
- time,
- significant figures
- Dimensional analysis
- Motion in a straight line
- Position,
- path length,
- displacement,
- average velocity,
- instantaneous velocity,
- average acceleration,
- instantaneous acceleration.
- Scalars and vectors
- vector addition and subtraction
- relative velocity

#### UNIT II: Kinematics

#### UNIT III: Laws of Motion

- Newton’s Laws of Motion
- First
- second
- and third laws
- Friction
- Types and laws of friction,
- Applications.

#### UNIT IV: Work, Energy, and Power

- Work done by a force
- energy,
- power
- kinetic and potential energy
- conservation of energy,
- collision.

#### UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

- Centre of mass
- motion of centre of mass
- linear momentum,
- impulse and momentum,
- rigid body
- moment of inertia
- theorem of perpendicular and parallel axis.

#### UNIT VI: Gravitation

- Kepler’s laws of planetary motion
- acceleration due to gravity,
- universal law of gravitation
- gravitational potential energy
- escape velocity

#### UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

- Elastic behaviour
- stress-strain relationship
- Hooke’s law
- bulk modulus
- Young’s modulus
- Poisson’s ratio,
- fluid mechanics.

#### UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics

- Thermal equilibrium
- zeroth law of thermodynamics,
- heat,
- work and internal energy,
- first law of thermodynamics,
- second law of thermodynamics
- reversible and irreversible processes

#### UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory

- Equation of state of a perfect gas
- kinetic theory of gases,
- assumptions of kinetic theory,
- law of equipartition of energy
- specific heat capacity
- mean free path

#### UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves

- Periodic motion
- Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.)
- oscillations due to spring,
- kinetic and potential energy in S.H.M.,
- wave motion
- transverse and longitudinal waves,
- speed of wave motion,
- superposition of waves,
- standing waves.

## PHYSICS-XII

#### UNIT I: Electric Charges and Fields

- Electric charges
- conservation of charge
- Coulomb’s law
- electric field intensity,
- electric field lines,
- electric flux
- Gauss’s law
- its applications.

#### UNIT II: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

- Electrostatic potential,
- potential due to a point charge,
- potential due to an electric dipole
- potential due to a system of charges,
- equipotential surfaces
- electrical capacitance,
- parallel plate capacitor,
- combination of capacitors,
- energy stored in a capacitor

#### UNIT III: Current Electricity

- Electric current
- drift velocity
- Ohm’s law
- electrical resistance
- resistivity,
- colour code for resistors,
- series and parallel combination of resistors,
- temperature dependence of resistance,
- internal resistance
- of a cell,
- Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications,
- Wheatstone bridge
- meter bridge.

#### UNIT IV: Moving Charges and Magnetism

- Magnetic force on a moving charge,
- magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor,
- force between two parallel current-carrying conductors,
- torque
- experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field,
- moving coil galvanometer,
- magnetic dipole moment,
- oscillation of a magnetic dipole,
- Earth’s magnetic field,
- magnetic properties of materials,
- dia,
- para and ferromagnetic substances,
- Hysteresis,
- permanent magnets.

#### UNIT V: Magnetism and Matter

- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
- magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole along its axis and perpendicular to its axis,
- torque
- on a magnetic dipole,
- magnetic properties of materials,
- paramagnetic,
- diamagnetic and ferromagnetic materials.

#### UNIT VI: Electromagnetic Induction

- Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s law
- Lenz’s law
- self and mutual induction
- alternating currents
- AC generator
- transformer
- inductance.

#### UNIT VII: Alternating Current

- Alternating currents
- mean and RMS value of alternating current/voltage,
- reactance and impedance,
- LC oscillations,
- LCR series circuit
- resonance,
- [power in AC circuits],
- wattless current.

#### UNIT VIII: Electromagnetic Waves

- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics
- electromagnetic spectrum,
- applications of electromagnetic waves.

#### UNIT IX: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

- Reflection of light
- spherical mirrors
- mirror formula
- refraction of light,
- total internal reflection,
- lenses,
- lens formula,
- magnification
- power of a lens,
- optical instruments - microscope,
- telescope.

#### UNIT X: Wave Optics

- Wave front and Huygens’ principle,
- interference
- Young’s double-slit experiment,
- diffraction,
- polarisation.

## CHEMISTRY-XI

#### UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

- Importance of chemistry,
- nature of matter,
- laws of chemical combination,
- Dalton’s atomic theory
- atomic and molecular masses,
- mole concept and molar mass,
- percentage composition,
- empirical and molecular formulae,
- chemical reactions,
- stoichiometry.

#### UNIT II: Structure of Atom

- Discovery of electron,
- proton and neutron,
- atomic number,
- isotopes,
- isobars,
- Thomson’s model of atom,
- Rutherford’s model of atom,
- Bohr’s model of atom
- electronic configuration of atoms.

#### UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

- Periodic table and its Classification,
- periodic trends in properties of elements - atomic size,
- ionization enthalpy
- electron gain enthalpy
- electronegativity,
- Valence,
- periodicity in properties.

#### UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

- Kossel Lewis approach to chemical bonding,
- ionic bond
- covalent bond
- Valence bond theory,
- resonance,
- VSEPR theory
- hybridization,
- molecular orbital theory,
- bond length,
- bond angle,
- bond order,
- dipole moment.

#### UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

- Three states of matter,
- intermolecular forces,
- properties of gases,
- ideal gas equation,
- real gases,
- deviation from ideal behaviour,
- liquefaction of gases,
- properties of liquids,
- vapour pressure,
- viscosity.

#### UNIT VI: Thermodynamics

- System and surroundings,
- types of thermodynamic processes,
- first law of thermodynamics
- internal energy,
- work,
- heat,
- enthalpy
- heat capacity
- calorimetry,
- Second law of thermodynamics
- entropy.

#### UNIT VII: Equilibrium

- Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes,
- dynamic nature of equilibrium,
- law of mass action,
- equilibrium constant,
- factors affecting equilibrium,
- Le Chatelier’s principle

#### UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions

- Oxidation and reduction,
- oxidation number
- balancing redox reactions
- types of redox reactions
- electrochemical series,
- applications of redox reactions

#### UNIT IX: Hydrogen

- Position of hydrogen in periodic table,
- isotopes of hydrogen,
- properties of hydrogen,
- preparation,
- properties and uses of hydrogen compounds - water,
- hydrogen peroxide,
- heavy water,
- hydrogen as a fuel.

#### UNIT X: s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

- General introduction,
- electronic configuration,
- occurrence,
- anomalous properties of the first element of each group,
- diagonal relationship,
- trends in the properties of elements - atomic and ionic radii,
- ionization enthalpy
- electropositivity,
- oxidation states,
- trends in chemical reactivity
- compounds of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals.

#### UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements

- General introduction to p-Block elements: Group 13 elements: General introduction,
- electronic configuration,
- occurrence,
- variation of properties,
- oxidation states,
- trends in chemical reactivity
- anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron - physical and chemical properties,
- some important compounds: borax,
- boric acid,
- boron hydrides. Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalis,
- uses.

#### UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

- General introduction,
- methods of purification,
- qualitative and quantitative analysis,
- classification and IUPAC nomenclature
- of organic compounds.
- Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: Inductive effect,
- electromeric effect,
- resonance and hyperconjugation.
- Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: Free radicals,
- carbocations,
- carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles,
- types of organic reactions.

#### UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons

- Classification of hydrocarbons,
- alkanes - nomenclature,
- isomerism
- conformation (ethane only),
- physical properties,
- chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation,
- combustion,
- preparation of alkanes (from unsaturated hydrocarbons) and Wurtz reaction.
- Alkenes - nomenclature,
- structure of double bond (ethene),
- geometrical isomerism,
- physical properties,
- methods of preparation: from alcohols,
- from alkynes,
- chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen,
- halogen,
- water,
- hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect),
- ozonolysis,
- oxidation,
- mechanism of electrophilic addition.
- Alkynes - nomenclature,
- structure of triple bond (ethyne),
- physical properties,
- methods of preparation: from calcium carbide,
- from vicinal dihalides,
- from alkynes,
- chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes,
- addition reaction of - hydrogen,
- halogen,
- water and hydrogen halides,
- polymerization.

#### UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry

- Environmental pollution: Air,
- water and soil pollution,
- chemical reactions in atmosphere,
- smog,
- major atmospheric pollutants,
- acid rain,
- ozone and its reactions,
- effects of depletion of ozone layer,
- greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial wastes,
- green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution,
- strategies for controlling environmental pollution.

## CHEMISTRY-XII

#### UNIT I: Solid State

- Classification of solids,
- crystal lattice,
- unit cell,
- calculation of density of unit cell,
- packing in solids,
- voids,
- imperfections in solids,
- electrical properties,
- band theory of solids.

#### UNIT II: Solutions

- Types of solutions,
- solubility,
- Raoult’s law
- elevation of boiling point,
- depression of freezing point,
- osmotic pressure
- abnormal molecular mass

#### UNIT III: Electrochemistry

- Electrochemical cells
- EMF of a cell,
- Nernst equation,
- conductance,
- Kohlrausch’s law,
- electrolytic conductance,
- specific and molar conductivities,
- galvanic cells
- batteries,
- corrosion.

#### UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics

- Rate of Reaction
- factors affecting rate of reaction
- rate law
- integrated rate equations,
- half-life,
- collision theory
- activation energy
- catalysis.

#### UNIT V: Surface Chemistry

- Adsorption,
- catalysis,
- colloids - preparation and properties,
- emulsions,
- micelles,
- purification of colloids,
- dialysis,
- electrophoresis.

#### UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

- Occurrence of metals,
- concentration of ores,
- extraction of crude metal,
- refining of metals,
- thermodynamic and electrochemical principles of metallurgy.

#### UNIT VII: p-Block Elements

- Group 13 to Group 18 elements,
- general introduction,
- electronic configuration,
- occurrence,
- trends in physical and chemical properties,
- anomalous properties,
- Boron - properties and compounds,
- carbon - allotropes and compounds,
- nitrogen - preparation and properties,
- ammonia and nitric acid.

#### UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements

- Transition metals - electronic configuration
- general trends,
- properties,
- ionization enthalpy,
- oxidation states,
- lanthanides and actinides - electronic configuration
- oxidation states.

#### UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds

- Coordination compounds,
- nomenclature,
- isomerism,
- bonding in coordination compounds,
- Werner’s theory
- Valence bond theory,
- crystal field theory,
- applications of coordination compounds.

#### UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

- Haloalkanes - preparation,
- properties,
- reactions,
- mechanism of SN1 and SN2 reactions,
- uses,
- Haloarenes - preparation,
- properties,
- uses,
- environmental effects.

#### UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

#### UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids

- Aldehyde and Ketones - preparation,
- properties,
- reactions,
- uses,
- Carboxylic Acids - preparation,
- properties,
- reactions,
- uses.

#### UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

- Amines - preparation,
- properties,
- reactions,
- uses,
- Diazonium Salts - preparation,
- properties,
- reactions,
- uses,
- Cyanides and Isocyanides - preparation,
- properties,
- reactions,
- uses.

#### UNIT XIV: Biomolecules

- Carbohydrates - Classification,
- monosaccharides,
- oligosaccharides,
- polysaccharides,
- proteins - amino acids,
- peptides,
- proteins,
- nucleic acids - DNA, RNA
- lipids.

#### UNIT XV: Polymers

- Classification,
- polymerisation,
- polymer properties,
- biodegradable polymers,
- commercial polymers.

#### UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

- Drugs and pharmaceuticals,
- cleansing agents,
- food preservatives,
- artificial sweetening agents,
- antioxidants,
- soaps and detergents.

## MATHEMATICS-XI

#### UNIT I: Sets

- Sets and their representations
- types of sets,
- subsets,
- operations on sets,
- Venn diagrams.

#### UNIT II: Relations and Functions

- Relations: Definition,
- types
- domain,
- co-domain,
- and range.
- Functions
- Definition,
- types (one-one, onto, and many-one)
- composite functions,
- inverse of a function.

#### UNIT III: Trigonometric Functions

- Trigonometric ratios: Definition,
- trigonometric identities,
- trigonometric equations,
- properties of triangles,
- heights and distances.

#### UNIT IV: Principle of Mathematical Induction

- Statement and verification of the principle,
- applications.

#### UNIT V: Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

- Complex Numbers
- Definition,
- algebraic operations,
- modulus,
- conjugate,
- polar representation.
- Quadratic equations:
- Nature of roots
- relationships between roots and coefficients.

#### UNIT VI: Linear Inequalities

- Linear inequalities and their solutions,
- graphical representation on number line.

#### UNIT VII: Permutations and Combinations

- Fundamental principle of counting,
- permutations,
- combinations,
- binomial theorem (positive integral indices only).

#### UNIT VIII: Sequence and Series

- Arithmetic progressions (AP)
- Definition,
- nth term,
- sum of first n terms.
- Geometric progressions (GP)
- Definition,
- nth term,
- sum of first n terms,
- infinite GP.

#### UNIT IX: Binomial Theorem

- Binomial theorem for positive integral indices,
- general term,
- middle term,
- properties.

#### UNIT X: Statistics and Probability

- Statistics: Measures of dispersion (mean deviation,
- variance,
- standard deviation),
- range,
- mean,
- median,
- mode.
- Probability:
- Probability of an event
- addition and multiplication theorems of probability
- conditional probability.

## MATHEMATICS-XII

#### UNIT I: Relations and Functions

- Types of relations
- reflexive,
- symmetric,
- transitive,
- equivalence relations. Functions
- one-one
- onto and inverse of a function
- composite functions
- binary operations.

#### UNIT II: Inverse Trigonometric Functions

- Definition,
- range,
- domain,
- principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functionsElementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions

#### UNIT III: Matrices

- Concept,
- notation,
- order,
- equality,
- types of matrices
- operations (addition, multiplication by a scalar and multiplication of matrices),
- transpose of a matrix,
- determinant of a square matrix,
- inverse of a matrix,
- consistency,
- inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples,
- solving system of linear equations in two or three variables using inverse of a matrix (if it exists).

#### UNIT IV: Determinants

- Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices),
- properties of determinants
- minors,
- cofactors and applications of determinants
- in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint
- inverse of a square matrix. Consistency,
- inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples,
- solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

#### UNIT V: Continuity and Differentiability

- Continuity and differentiability
- derivative of composite functions,
- chain rule,
- derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions,
- derivative of implicit functions
- Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.

#### UNIT VI: Applications of Derivatives

- Applications of derivatives
- Rate of change of quantities
- monotonic - increasing and decreasing functions
- maxima and minima of functions of one variable
- tangents and normals,
- Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems.

#### UNIT VII: Integrals

- Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution,
- by partial fractions and by parts. Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.
- Definite integrals as a limit of a sum,
- Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals

#### UNIT VIII: Applications of Integrals

- Applications in finding the area under simple curves,
- especially lines,
- circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only),
- Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).

#### UNIT IX: Differential Equations

- Definition,
- order and degree,
- general and particular solutions of a differential equation
- Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given
- Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables,
- solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree.

#### UNIT X: Vectors

- Vectors and scalars,
- addition of vectors,
- components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space,
- scalar and vector products,
- scalar and vector triple product.

#### UNIT XI: Three-Dimensional Geometry

- Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line,
- coplanar and skew lines
- shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane,
- angle between two planes,
- distance of a point from a plane.

#### UNIT XII: Linear Programming

- Introduction,
- related terminology such as constraints,
- objective function,
- optimization,
- different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems,
- mathematical formulation of L.P. problems,
- graphical method of solution for problems in two variables,
- feasible and infeasible regions (bounded),
- feasible and infeasible solutions,
- optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

## BIOLOGY-XI

#### UNIT I: Diversity in Living Organisms

- Classification of living organisms,
- basis of Classification,
- five-kingdom Classification,
- plant and animal kingdom Classification.

#### UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals

- Morphology
- anatomy of flowering plants,
- animal tissues
- plant tissues

#### UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function

- Cell theory,
- structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,
- cell organelles and their functions,
- Cell Division
- mitosis
- meiosis.

#### UNIT IV: Plant Physiology

- Transport in plants: absorption of water,
- ascent of sap,
- transpiration,
- translocation of food.
- Photosynthesis
- Photosynthetic pigments,
- light and dark reactions,
- factors affecting photosynthesis
- Respiration
- Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
- respiratory quotient

#### UNIT V: Human Physiology

- Digestion and absorption: Digestive system,
- enzymes
- absorption of nutrients.
- Breathing and
- Respiration
- Respiratory system,
- mechanism of breathing,
- exchange of gases.
- Body fluids and circulation
- Circulatory system,
- blood groups
- lymphatic system.
- Excretory products and their elimination
- Excretory System
- urine formation
- osmoregulation.

#### UNIT VI: Plant Reproduction

- Modes of reproduction in plants: sexual and asexual reproduction,
- flower structureand reproduction,
- pollination,
- fertilization,
- seed formation.

#### UNIT VII: Human Reproduction

- Male and female reproductive systems
- gametogenesis,
- menstrual cycle
- fertilization,
- implantation
- pregnancy,
- parturition,
- lactation.

#### UNIT VIII: Genetics and Evolution

- Mendelian inheritance
- deviations from Mendelism,
- chromosome theory of inheritance
- sex determination,
- linkage and crossing over
- Evolution: Origin of life
- theories of evolution,
- evidences for evolution,
- Lamarckism,
- Darwinism,
- natural selection.

#### UNIT IX: Biology and Human Welfare

- Health and disease
- Common diseases,
- immunity,
- vaccines
- AIDS,
- cancer
- tuberculosis.
- Improvement in food production: Plant breeding,
- tissue culture,
- animal husbandry practices.

#### UNIT X: Biotechnology

- Principles and processes of biotechnology,
- applications in agriculture,
- medicine,
- and industry,
- genetic engineering,
- DNA technology.

## BIOLOGY-XII

#### UNIT I: Reproduction in Organisms

- Reproduction,
- a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual; asexual reproduction - binary fission,
- sporulation,
- budding,
- gemmule formation,
- fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants:
- Flower structure
- Development of male and female gametophytes
- Pollination - types, agencies and examples;
- Outbreeding devices
- Pollen-Pistil interaction
- Double fertilization
- Post fertilization events - Development of endosperm and embryo,
- Development of seed and formation of fruit
- Special modes-apomixis,
- parthenocarpy,
- polyembryony.

#### UNIT II: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

- Pre-fertilization: Structures and events - microsporangium,
- pollen grain,
- structure of anthers and ovaries,
- pollination and its types.
- Double fertilization
- Process and events.
- Post-fertilization: Structures and events - formation of endosperm and embryo,
- development of seeds and formation of fruit
- parthenogenesis and apomixis.

#### UNIT III: Human Reproduction

- Male and female reproductive systems
- gametogenesis,
- menstrual cycle
- fertilization,
- implantation
- embryo development,
- pregnancy and placenta,
- parturition,
- lactation,
- reproductive health - STDs,
- infertility.

#### UNIT IV: Reproductive Health

- Need for reproductive health,
- problems and strategies for reproductive health,
- adolescent issues,
- population explosion,
- birth control methods,
- MTP,
- STDs.

#### UNIT V: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

- Mendelian inheritance
- deviations from Mendelism - incomplete dominance
- co-dominance
- multiple alleles
- pleiotropy
- Chromosome theory of inheritance
- sex determination;
- linkage and crossing over
- inheritance patterns: human genetics,
- genetic disorders.

#### UNIT VI: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

- Structure of DNA
- RNA
- DNA packaging
- replication,
- transcription
- genetic code
- translation
- regulation of gene expression,
- human genome project,
- DNA fingerprinting,
- RNA interference.

#### UNIT VII: Evolution

- Origin of life,
- theories of evolution,
- evidences for evolution - fossil records,
- biogeography,
- comparative anatomy
- embryology,
- molecular evidence,
- adaptive radiation
- convergent evolution,
- divergent evolution,
- human evolution
- Hardy-Weinberg principle,
- natural selection.

#### UNIT VIII: Human Health and Disease

- Common diseases in humans - infectious and non-infectious diseases,
- immunity - innate and acquired,
- vaccines
- AIDS,
- cancer
- tuberculosis,
- malaria
- preventive measures,
- basic concepts of immunology

#### UNIT IX: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

- Plant breeding - role of selection,
- hybridization,
- cross-pollination,
- steps in plant breeding,
- tissue culture methods,
- single cell protein.

#### UNIT X: Microbes in Human Welfare

- Microbes in household products,
- industrial products,
- sewage treatment
- microbes as biocontrol agents,
- antibiotics,
- production of alcohol and antibiotics.

#### UNIT XI: Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

- Genetic engineering
- tools of recombinant DNA technology
- DNA cloning,
- PCR,
- electrophoresis,
- DNA fingerprinting,
- biotechnology in agriculture
- medicine and industry,
- ethical issues.

#### UNIT XII: Biotechnology and its Applications

- Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)- Bt crops
- transgenic animals
- gene therapy
- stem
- cell technology,
- biopiracy,
- biosafety issues.

#### UNIT XIII: Organisms and Populations

- Organisms and environment,
- habitat and niche,
- population and ecological adaptations,
- population interactions - mutualism,
- competition,
- predation,
- parasitism,
- population attributes,
- population growth and regulation,
- ecological succession.

#### UNIT XIV: Ecosystem

- Ecosystem structure and function,
- productivity,
- energy flow,
- nutrient cycling,
- ecological pyramids,
- ecological succession,
- biogeochemical cycles,
- conservation of biodiversity
- biodiversity hotspots
- endangered species,
- conservation strategies.

#### UNIT XV: Biodiversity and Conservation

- Importance of biodiversity
- threats to biodiversity,
- conservation of biodiversity - in situ and ex situ conservation methods,
- biosphere reserves
- national parks,
- wildlife sanctuaries,
- Red Data Book
- endangered and endemic species.