## Manipur State Board

## PHYSICS-XI

#### UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement

- Units and measurements
- systems of units
- Dimensional analysis
- measurement of length,
- mass,
- time,
- error analysis.

#### UNIT II: Kinematics

- Motion in a straight line
- position,
- path length,
- displacement,
- average velocity and instantaneous velocity,
- average acceleration and instantaneous acceleration,
- uniformly accelerated motion
- relative velocity

#### UNIT III: Laws of Motion

- Force and inertia,
- Newton’s first law of motion, momentum
- Newton’s second law of motion, impulse
- Newton’s third law of motion
- conservation of momentum,
- equilibrium of concurrent forces

#### UNIT IV: Work, Energy, and Power

- Work done by a constant force and a variable force;
- kinetic energy
- work-energy theorem
- power
- potential energy
- conservative forces,
- non-conservative forces,
- conservation of mechanical energy,
- elastic and inelastic collisions.

#### UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

- Centre of mass of a two-particle system
- momentum conservation and centre of mass motion
- rigid body rotation,
- comparison of linear and rotational motions
- moment of inertia
- radius of gyration,
- rotational kinetic energy,
- rolling motion,
- torque
- angular momentum
- conservation of angular momentum

#### UNIT VI: Gravitation

- Kepler’s laws of planetary motion
- universal law of gravitation
- acceleration due to gravity of the earth,
- gravitational potential energy
- gravitational potential
- escape velocity
- orbital velocity of a satellite
- geostationary satellites

#### UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

- Elastic behaviour
- stress-strain relationship
- Hooke’s law,
- elastic moduli - Young’s modulus,
- shear modulus,
- bulk modulus
- Poisson’s ratio; fluid mechanics - pressure due to a fluid column
- Pascal’s law and its applications,
- surface tension,
- viscosity
- Stokes’ law,
- terminal velocity,
- Bernoulli’s principle and its applications.

#### UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics

- Thermal equilibrium
- zeroth law of thermodynamics,
- concept of temperature
- Celsius and Fahrenheit scales of temperature,
- thermal expansion of solids
- liquids, and gases,
- heat,
- calorimetry
- latent heat
- specific heat capacity
- laws of calorimetry,
- change of state - boiling,
- melting,
- evaporation,
- sublimation,
- kinetic theory of gases,
- law of equipartition of energy
- heat engines,
- refrigerators,
- heat pump,
- second law of thermodynamics
- Carnot engine,
- efficiency of heat engines.

#### UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory

- Equation of state of a perfect gas
- work done on compressing a gas
- kinetic theory of gases - assumptions
- concept of pressure,
- kinetic interpretation of temperature
- rms speed of gas molecules,
- degrees of freedom
- law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases,
- concept of mean free path
- Avogadro’s number.

#### UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves

- Periodic motion - period,
- frequency,
- displacement as a function of time,
- periodic functions
- Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation
- oscillation of a spring - restoring force and force constant,
- energy in S.H.M.,
- the combination of S.H.M. and simple pendulum,
- wave motion
- longitudinal and transverse waves
- displacement relation in a progressive wave,
- the speed of a wave,
- the principle of superposition of waves
- reflection of waves
- standing waves,
- normal modes,
- sound waves and Doppler effect (qualitative treatment only).

## PHYSICS-XII

#### UNIT I: Electric Charges and Fields

- Electric charges
- conservation of charge
- Coulomb’s law
- electric field
- electric field lines,
- electric flux
- Gauss’s theorem and its application to find field due to infinitely long straight wire,
- uniformly charged infinite plane sheet
- uniformly charged thin spherical shell

#### UNIT II: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

- Electrostatic potential,
- potential due to a point charge,
- potential due to a dipole,
- potential due to a system of charges,
- equipotential surfaces
- electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole
- in an electrostatic field.

#### UNIT III: Current Electricity

- Electric current
- flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor,
- drift velocity
- mobility and their relation with electric current
- Ohm’s law
- electrical resistance
- V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear),
- electrical energy and power
- electrical resistivity and conductivity

#### UNIT IV: Moving Charges and Magnetism

- Magnetic force,
- motion in a magnetic field,
- magnetic field due to current,
- magnetic field due to a straight current carrying conductor,
- force on a moving charge in a magnetic field,
- magnetic field due to a solenoid,
- torque
- experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field,
- moving coil galvanometer,
- current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
- the principle and working of a cyclotron.

#### UNIT V: Magnetism and Matter

- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
- magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis,
- torque
- on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field,
- bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid
- magnetic field lines
- Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

#### UNIT VI: Electromagnetic Induction

- Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws
- induced EMF and current
- Lenz’s Law
- Eddy currents
- self and mutual inductance
- alternating currents
- AC generator
- transformer

#### UNIT VII: Alternating Current

- AC voltage applied to a resistor,
- representation of AC current and voltage by rotating vectors - phasors,
- AC voltage applied to an inductor,
- AC voltage applied to a capacitor,
- LC oscillations,
- LCR series circuit
- power in AC circuits
- wattless current.

#### UNIT VIII: Electromagnetic Waves

- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics
- transverse nature of electromagnetic waves
- electromagnetic spectrum,
- elementary facts about Hertz experiment.

#### UNIT IX: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

- Ray optics and optical instruments,
- reflection of light
- spherical mirrors
- mirror formula
- refraction of light,
- total internal reflection and its applications
- optical fibres,
- refraction at spherical surfaces,
- lenses,
- lens formula,
- magnification
- power of a lens,
- combination of thin lenses in contact
- microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

#### UNIT X: Wave Optics

- Wavefront and Huygens’ principle,
- reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts,
- proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle,
- interference
- Young’s double-slit experiment and expression for fringe width
- coherent sources
- sustained interference of light
- diffraction due to a single slit
- width of central maximum
- resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes,
- polarisation,
- plane polarised light,
- Brewster’s law,
- uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

## CHEMISTRY-XI

#### UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

- Importance of Chemistry,
- Nature of Matter,
- Laws of Chemical Combination,
- Dalton’s Atomic Theory
- Atomic and Molecular Mass,
- Mole Concept and Molar Masses,
- Percentage Composition,
- Empirical and Molecular Formula,
- Chemical Reactions,
- Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations.

#### UNIT II: Structure of Atom

- Discovery of Electron,
- Proton and Neutron,
- Atomic Number,
- Isotopes and Isobars,
- Thomson’s Model of Atom,
- Rutherford’s Model of Atom,
- Bohr’s Model of Atom
- Energy Levels,
- Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom,
- Electronic Configurations of Elements.

#### UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

- Periodic Table,
- Periodic Trends in Properties - Atomic Radii,
- Ionic Radii,
- Ionization Energy,
- Electron Affinity,
- Electronegativity,
- Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactivity

#### UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

- Kossel Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding,
- Octet Rule,
- Ionic Bonding
- Covalent Bonding
- VSEPR Theory
- Shapes of Molecules,
- Hybridization,
- Molecular Orbital Theory,
- Bonding in Coordination Compounds.

#### UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

- Intermolecular Forces,
- Characteristics of Gases,
- Boyle’s Law,
- Charles’s Law,
- Gay-Lussac’s Law,
- Avogadro’s Law,
- Ideal Gas Equation,
- Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases,
- Deviation from Ideal Behaviour,
- Liquefaction of Gases,
- Liquid State,
- Properties of Liquids,
- Vapour Pressure,
- Surface Tension,
- Viscosity.

#### UNIT VI: Thermodynamics

- Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics,
- System and Surroundings,
- Types of Thermodynamic Processes,
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Internal Energy and Enthalpy
- Heat Capacity
- Measurement of ΔU and ΔH,
- Enthalpy
- Change during Phase Transition
- Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation,
- Enthalpy
- of Bond Dissociation,
- Introduction to Second Law of Thermodynamics-

#### UNIT VII: Equilibrium

- Equilibrium in Physical and Chemical Processes,
- Dynamic Nature of Equilibrium,
- Law of Mass Action,
- Equilibrium Constant,
- Factors Affecting Equilibrium - Le Chatelier’s Principle
- Types of Equilibria,
- Ionic Equilibrium in Solution,
- Acids,
- Bases and Salts,
- pH Scale
- Buffer Solutions

#### UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions

- Oxidation and Reduction Reactions,
- Redox Reactions
- in Terms of Electron Transfer,
- Oxidation Number
- Balancing of Redox Reactions
- types of redox reactions - Combination,
- Decomposition,
- Displacement,
- Disproportionation,
- Oxidation and Reduction Potentials.

#### UNIT IX: Hydrogen

- Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table,
- Dihydrogen - Preparation,
- Properties and uses,
- Heavy Water,
- Hydrogen Peroxide - Preparation,
- Properties and uses,
- Hydrides - Classification and Preparation,
- Water - Structure,
- Properties and uses,
- Hard and Soft Water,
- Hydrogen as a Fuel.

#### UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

- General Characteristics of Group 1 and Group 2 Elements,
- Electronic Configurations,
- Atomic and Ionic Radii,
- Ionization Energy,
- Hydration Energy,
- Trends in Chemical Properties,
- Reactions of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals with Water,
- Oxides and Hydroxides,
- Anomalous Behaviour of Lithium and Beryllium.

#### UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements

- General introduction to p-Block elements: Group 13 elements: General introduction,
- electronic configuration,
- occurrence,
- variation of properties,
- oxidation states,
- trends in chemical reactivity
- anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron - physical and chemical properties,
- some important compounds: borax,
- boric acid,
- boron hydrides. Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalis,
- uses.

#### UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

- General introduction,
- methods of purification,
- qualitative and quantitative analysis,
- classification and IUPAC nomenclature
- of organic compounds.
- Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: Inductive effect,
- electromeric effect,
- resonance and hyperconjugation.
- Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: Free radicals,
- carbocations,
- carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles,
- types of organic reactions.

#### UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons

- Classification of hydrocarbons,
- alkanes - nomenclature,
- isomerism
- conformation (ethane only),
- physical properties,
- chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation,
- combustion,
- preparation of alkanes (from unsaturated hydrocarbons) and Wurtz reaction.
- Alkenes - nomenclature,
- structure of double bond (ethene),
- geometrical isomerism,
- physical properties,
- methods of preparation: from alcohols,
- from alkynes,
- chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen,
- halogen,
- water,
- hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect),
- ozonolysis,
- oxidation,
- mechanism of electrophilic addition.
- Alkynes - nomenclature,
- structure of triple bond (ethyne),
- physical properties,
- methods of preparation: from calcium carbide,
- from vicinal dihalides,
- from alkynes,
- chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes,
- addition reaction of - hydrogen,
- halogen,
- water and hydrogen halides,
- polymerization.

#### UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry

- Environmental pollution: Air,
- water and soil pollution,
- chemical reactions in atmosphere,
- smog,
- major atmospheric pollutants,
- acid rain,
- ozone and its reactions,
- effects of depletion of ozone layer,
- greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial wastes,
- green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution,
- strategies for controlling environmental pollution.

## CHEMISTRY-XII

#### UNIT I: Solid State

- Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular,
- ionic,
- covalent and metallic solids,
- amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea),
- unit cell in two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices,
- calculation of density of unit cell,
- packing in solids,
- voids,
- number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell,
- point defects,
- electrical and magnetic properties,
- Band theory of metals,
- conductors,
- semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.

#### UNIT II: Solutions

- Types of solutions,
- expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids,
- solubility of gases in liquids,
- solid solutions,
- colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure
- Raoult’s law
- elevation of boiling point,
- depression of freezing point,
- osmotic pressure
- determination of molecular masses using colligative properties
- abnormal molecular mass

#### UNIT III: Electrochemistry

- Redox Reactions
- conductance in electrolytic solutions
- specific and molar conductivity,
- variations of conductivity with concentration,
- Kohlrausch’s Law,
- electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea),
- dry cell - electrolytic cells andGalvanic cells
- EMF of a cell,
- standard electrode potential,
- Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells,
- fuel cells
- corrosion.

#### UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics

- Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous)
- factors affecting rate of reaction
- concentration,
- temperature,
- catalyst,
- order and molecularity of a reaction,
- rate law
- rate constant
- integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first-order reactions),
- concept of collision theory (elementary idea,
- no mathematical treatment),
- activation energy
- Arrhenius equation.

#### UNIT V: Surface Chemistry

- Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption,
- factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
- catalysis - homogeneous and heterogeneous,
- activity and selectivity of solid catalysts,
- enzyme catalysis and its mechanism,
- colloidal state - distinction between true solutions,
- colloids and suspensions,
- lyophilic,
- lyophobic,
- multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids,
- properties of colloids,
- Tyndall effect,
- Brownian movement,
- electrophoresis,
- coagulation.

#### UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

- Principles and methods of extraction - concentration,
- oxidation,
- reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium,
- copper,
- zinc and iron.

#### UNIT VII: P-block Elements

- Group 15 elements: General introduction,
- electronic configuration,
- occurrence,
- oxidation states,
- trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid,
- oxides of nitrogen (structure only),
- Phosphorus - allotropic forms,
- compounds of phosphorus - preparation and properties of phosphine,
- halides (PCL3,
- PCL5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

#### UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements

- General introduction
- electronic configuration
- occurrence
- characteristics of transition metals,
- general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals - metallic character,
- ionization enthalpy,
- oxidation states,
- ionic radii,
- colour
- catalytic property,
- magnetic properties
- interstitial compounds,
- alloy formation.

#### UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds

- Coordination compounds - introduction,
- ligands
- Coordination Number
- colour,
- magnetic properties and shapes,
- IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds
- bonding - Werner’s theory,
- VBT,
- and CFT,
- importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
- biological systems).

#### UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

- Haloalkanes: Nomenclature
- nature of C-X bond
- physical and chemical properties,
- mechanism of substitution reactions,
- optical rotation. Haloarenes:
- Nature of C-X bond
- substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).

#### UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

- Alcohols
- Nomenclature,
- methods of preparation
- physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only),
- identification of primary,
- secondary and tertiary alcohols,
- mechanism of dehydration,
- uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
- Phenols
- Nomenclature,
- methods of preparation
- physical and chemical properties,
- acidic nature of phenol,
- electrophilic substitution reactions,
- uses of phenols
- Ethers
- Nomenclature,
- methods of preparation
- physical and chemical properties,
- uses

#### UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids

- Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature,
- nature of carbonyl group
- methods of preparation,
- physical and chemical properties,
- mechanism of nucleophilic addition,
- reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes and uses.
- Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature,
- acidic nature,
- methods of preparation,
- physical and chemical properties; uses.

#### UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

- Amines: Nomenclature
- Classification,
- structure,
- methods of preparation,
- physical and chemical properties,
- uses,
- identification of primary,
- secondary and tertiary amines.
- Cyanides and Isocyanides: Nomenclature,
- structure,
- methods of preparation,
- physical and chemical properties,
- uses.
- Diazonium Salts
- Preparation,
- chemical reactions,
- and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

#### UNIT XIV: Biomolecules

- Carbohydrates
- Classification (aldoses and ketoses),
- monosaccharides (glucose and fructose),
- D-L configuration,
- oligosaccharides (sucrose,
- lactose,
- maltose),
- polysaccharides (starch,
- cellulose,
- glycogen); importance of carbohydrates.
- Proteins
- Elementary idea of amino acids,
- peptide bond, polypeptides
- proteins,
- structure of proteins - primary,
- secondary,
- tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only),
- denaturation of proteins; enzymes
- Vitamins - Classification and functions
- Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

#### UNIT XV: Polymers

- Classification: Natural and synthetic,
- methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
- copolymerization,
- some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene,
- nylon,
- polyesters,
- bakelite,
- rubber.

#### UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

- Chemicals in medicines: Analgesics,
- tranquilizers,
- antiseptics,
- disinfectants,
- antimicrobials,
- antifertility drugs,
- antibiotics,
- antacids,
- antihistamines.
- Chemicals in food: Preservatives,
- artificial sweetening agents,
- elementary idea of antioxidants.
- Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents,
- cleansing action.

## MATHEMATICS-XI

#### UNIT I: Sets and Functions

- Sets and their representations
- union
- intersection
- and complement of sets
- and their algebraic properties
- relations
- functions
- Venn diagrams,
- Cartesian product of sets,
- relation
- equivalence relation Functions - one-one, into and onto functions
- composition of functions.

#### UNIT II: Algebra

- Complex Numbers
- quadratic equations,
- arithmetic progression (AP)
- geometric progression (GP)
- arithmetic-geometric progression (AGP),
- quadratic equations,
- binomial theorem for positive integral index,
- relations between roots and coefficients,
- matrices
- and determinants

#### UNIT III: Trigonometry

- Trigonometric Functions
- trigonometric functions of compound angles,
- transformation formulae,
- trigonometric functions of multiple and sub-multiple angles,
- inverse trigonometric functions
- height and distance.

#### UNIT IV: Coordinate Geometry

- Straight lines,
- circles,
- conic sections,
- parabola,
- ellipse,
- hyperbola,
- introduction to three-dimensional geometry.

#### UNIT V: Calculus

- Limits
- derivatives,
- continuity and differentiability
- application of derivatives,
- integrals,
- definite integrals,
- differential equations.

#### UNIT VI: Mathematical Reasoning

- Statements,
- logical operations and,
- or,
- implies,
- implied by,
- if and only if (iff),
- conditional statements,
- converse and contra positive of statements.

#### UNIT VII: Statistics and Probability

- Measures of dispersion,
- calculation of mean,
- median and mode of grouped and ungrouped data,
- empirical relation,
- standard deviation,
- and correlation coefficient,
- probability.

## MATHEMATICS-XII

#### UNIT I: Relations and Functions

- Types of relations
- Reflexive,
- symmetric,
- transitive and equivalence relations. One-to-one and onto functions
- composite functions,
- inverse of a function. Binary operations.

#### UNIT II: Inverse Trigonometric Functions

- Definition,
- range,
- domain,
- principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions
- Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

#### UNIT III: Matrices

- Concept,
- notation,
- order,
- equality,
- types of matrices
- zero matrix,
- transpose of a matrix,
- symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition,
- multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse,
- if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

#### UNIT IV: Determinants

- Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices),
- properties of determinants
- minors,
- cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint
- inverse of a square matrix. Consistency,
- inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples,
- solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

#### UNIT V: Continuity and Differentiability

- Continuity and differentiability
- derivative of composite functions,
- chain rule,
- derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions,
- derivative of implicit functions
- Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.

#### UNIT VI: Applications of Derivatives

- Applications of derivatives
- Rate of change of quantities
- monotonic - increasing and decreasing functions
- maxima and minima of functions of one variable
- tangents and normals,
- Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems.

#### UNIT VII: Integrals

- Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution,
- by partial fractions and by parts. Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.
- Definite integrals as a limit of a sum,
- Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals

#### UNIT VIII: Applications of Integrals

- Applications in finding the area under simple curves,
- especially lines,
- circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only),
- Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).

#### UNIT IX: Differential Equations

- Definition,
- order and degree,
- general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables,
- solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree.

#### UNIT X: Vectors

- Vectors and scalars,
- addition of vectors,
- components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space,
- scalar and vector products,
- scalar and vector triple product.

#### UNIT XI: Three-Dimensional Geometry

- Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line,
- coplanar and skew lines
- shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane,
- angle between two planes,
- distance of a point from a plane.

#### UNIT XII: Linear Programming

- Introduction,
- related terminology such as constraints,
- objective function,
- optimization,
- different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems,
- mathematical formulation of L.P. problems,
- graphical method of solution for problems in two variables,
- feasible and infeasible regions (bounded),
- feasible and infeasible solutions,
- optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

#### UNIT XIII: Probability

- Conditional probability,
- multiplication theorem on probability,
- independent events,
- total probability,
- Bayes’ theorem
- random variable and its probability distribution
- mean and variance of random variable,
- Bernoulli trials and binomial distribution.

## BIOLOGY-XI

#### UNIT I: Diversity in Living World

- Diversity of living organisms,
- Classification of living organisms into five kingdoms,
- binomial nomenclature,
- salient features and Classification of animals (non-chordates up to phyla and chordates up to class level).

#### UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

- Tissues
- organs,
- organ systems and their functions (in earthworm,
- cockroach and humans),
- anatomy and function of different parts of flowering plants:
- Root
- stem
- leaf
- inflorescence,
- flower
- fruit
- and seed.

#### UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function

- Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,
- cell wall
- plasma membrane,
- cell organelles - structure and function,
- Cell Division
- mitosis
- meiosis,
- cell cycle
- and significance.

#### UNIT IV: Plant Physiology

- Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases, and nutrients;
- cell to cell transport and diffusion; transpiration,
- opening and closing of stomata,
- translocation of food,
- mechanism of absorption and movement of water and nutrients.

#### UNIT V: Human Physiology

- Digestion and absorption,
- Breathing and
- Respiration
- body fluids and circulation
- excretory products and their elimination
- locomotion and movement.

#### UNIT VI: Reproduction

- Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction,
- a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species,
- modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual; asexual reproduction - binary fission,
- sporulation,
- budding,
- gemmule formation,
- fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

#### UNIT VII: Genetics and Evolution

- Heredity and variation
- Mendelian inheritance
- deviation from Mendelism - incomplete dominance
- co-dominance
- multiple alleles
- inheritance of blood groups
- pleiotropy
- elementary idea of polygenic inheritance
- chromosome theory of inheritance
- chromosomes and genes; linkage,
- crossing over and recombination of genes; sex determination - in humans
- birds
- honey bee

#### UNIT VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

- Health and diseases:
- Pathogens
- parasites causing human diseases
- malaria
- dengue,
- chickengunya,
- filariasis
- ascariasis
- typhoid
- pneumonia
- common cold
- amoebiasis
- ring worm
- symptoms and prevention,
- immunity;
- aids
- cancer
- coronary artery diseases,
- angina,
- diabetes
- cataract,
- glaucoma; primary health centres and hospitals; alcoholism and drug abuse - addiction and treatment;
- adolescence
- drug and alcohol abuse
- prevention and management;
- adolescence
- drug and alcohol abuse
- prevention of substances.

#### UNIT IX: Biotechnology

- Applications of biotechnology in agriculture and medicine:
- Human insulin
- vaccine production
- genetic engineering,
- gene therapy
- transgenic animals
- plant breeding,
- tissue culture,
- diagnosis of genetic disorders,
- immune therapy,
- genetic testing.

#### UNIT X: Ecology and Environment

- Organism and environment: Habitat and niche,
- population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism,
- competition,
- predation,
- parasitism; population attributes - growth,
- birth rate and death rate,
- age distribution.

## BIOLOGY-XII

#### UNIT I: Reproduction in Organisms

- Reproduction,
- a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual; asexual reproduction - binary fission,
- sporulation,
- budding,
- gemmule formation,
- fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants:
- Flower structure
- Development of male and female gametophytes
- Pollination - types, agencies and examples;
- Outbreeding devices
- Pollen-Pistil interaction
- Double fertilization
- Post fertilization events - Development of endosperm and embryo,
- Development of seed and formation of fruit
- Special modes-apomixis,
- parthenocarpy,
- polyembryony.

#### UNIT II: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

- Pre-fertilization: Structures and events - microsporangium,
- pollen grain,
- structure of anthers and ovaries,
- pollination and its types.
- Double fertilization
- Process and events.
- Post-fertilization: Structures and events - formation of endosperm and embryo,
- development of seeds and formation of fruit
- parthenogenesis and apomixis.

#### UNIT III: Human Reproduction

- Male and female reproductive systems
- gametogenesis,
- menstrual cycle
- fertilization,
- implantation
- embryo development,
- pregnancy and placenta,
- parturition,
- lactation,
- reproductive health - STDs,
- infertility.

#### UNIT IV: Reproductive Health

- Need for reproductive health,
- problems and strategies for reproductive health,
- adolescent issues,
- population explosion,
- birth control methods,
- MTP,
- STDs.

#### UNIT V: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

- Mendelian inheritance
- deviations from Mendelism - incomplete dominance
- co-dominance
- multiple alleles
- pleiotropy
- Chromosome theory of inheritance
- sex determination;
- linkage and crossing over
- inheritance patterns: human genetics,
- genetic disorders.

#### UNIT VI: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

- Structure of DNA
- RNA
- DNA packaging
- replication,
- transcription
- genetic code
- translation
- regulation of gene expression,
- human genome project,
- DNA fingerprinting,
- RNA interference.

#### UNIT VII: Evolution

- Origin of life,
- theories of evolution,
- evidences for evolution - fossil records,
- biogeography,
- comparative anatomy
- embryology,
- molecular evidence,
- adaptive radiation
- convergent evolution,
- divergent evolution,
- human evolution
- Hardy-Weinberg principle,
- natural selection.

#### UNIT VIII: Human Health and Disease

- Common diseases in humans - infectious and non-infectious diseases,
- immunity - innate and acquired,
- vaccines
- AIDS,
- cancer
- tuberculosis,
- malaria
- preventive measures,
- basic concepts of immunology

#### UNIT IX: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

- Plant breeding - role of selection,
- hybridization,
- cross-pollination,
- steps in plant breeding,
- tissue culture methods,
- single cell protein.

#### UNIT X: Microbes in Human Welfare

- Microbes in household products,
- industrial products,
- sewage treatment
- microbes as biocontrol agents,
- antibiotics,
- production of alcohol and antibiotics.

#### UNIT XI: Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

- Genetic engineering
- tools of recombinant DNA technology
- DNA cloning,
- PCR,
- electrophoresis,
- DNA fingerprinting,
- biotechnology in agriculture
- medicine and industry,
- ethical issues.

#### UNIT XII: Biotechnology and its Applications

- Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)- Bt crops
- transgenic animals
- gene therapy
- stem
- cell technology,
- biopiracy,
- biosafety issues.

#### UNIT XIII: Organisms and Populations

- Organisms and environment,
- habitat and niche,
- population and ecological adaptations,
- population interactions - mutualism,
- competition,
- predation,
- parasitism,
- population attributes,
- population growth and regulation,
- ecological succession.

#### UNIT XIV: Ecosystem

- Ecosystem structure and function,
- productivity,
- energy flow,
- nutrient cycling,
- ecological pyramids,
- ecological succession,
- biogeochemical cycles,
- conservation of biodiversity
- biodiversity hotspots
- endangered species,
- conservation strategies.

#### UNIT XV: Biodiversity and Conservation

- Importance of biodiversity
- threats to biodiversity,
- conservation of biodiversity - in situ and ex situ conservation methods,
- biosphere reserves
- national parks,
- wildlife sanctuaries,
- Red Data Book
- endangered and endemic species.