## Maharashtra Board

## PHYSICS-XI

#### CHAPTER I: MEASUREMENTS

- Introduction
- Need for measurement
- Units for measurement System of Units,S.I. Units Fundamental and derived units,
- Dimensional analysis Order of magnitude and significant figures,
- Accuracy and errors in measurement

#### CHAPTER II: SCALARS AND VECTORS

#### CHAPTER III: PROJECTILE MOTION

- Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line,
- Non-uniform motion
- Position-time graph and velocity-time graph
- Equation of a projectile path
- Time off light
- Horizontal range
- Maximum height of a projectile
- Relative velocity

#### CHAPTER IV: FORCE

- Types of forces
- General idea of gravitation
- electromagnetic and nuclear forces
- Law of conservation of momentum
- Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem
- Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions
- Inertial and non-inertial frames
- the moment of force
- Couple and properties of the couple
- Centre of mass
- Centre of gravity
- Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.

#### CHAPTER V: FRICTION IN SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

- Origin and nature of frictional forces
- Laws of static friction
- Laws of kinetic friction
- Pressure due to fluid column
- Pascal’s Law and its applications
- Effect of gravity on fluid pressure
- Viscosity
- Streamlined low
- Turbulent flow
- Viscous force,Newton’s formula
- Stokes’ law
- Equation for terminal velocity
- Raynold’s number
- Bernoulli’s principle and its applications.

#### CHAPTER VI: SOUND WAVES

- Waves and oscillations
- Progressive waves
- Characteristics of transverse waves
- Characteristics of longitudinal waves
- Sound as longitudinal wave motion
- Relation between v
- f and λ Newton’s formula for the velocity of sound
- Laplace’s correction.

#### CHAPTER VII: THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

- Temperature and heat
- Measurement of temperature
- Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature
- Thermal expansion
- Specific heat capacity
- Calorimetry
- change of state
- Latent heat
- Heat transfer.

#### CHAPTER VIII: REFRACTION OF LIGHT

- Refraction of monochromatic light
- Snell’s law
- Total internal reflection
- Critical angle,Optical fibre
- Dispersion of light
- Prism formula
- Angular dispersion and dispersive power
- Rainbow
- Scattering of light
- Blue colour of sky
- Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset
- Elementary idea of Raman effect

#### CHAPTER IX: RAY OPTICS

- Reflection of light by spherical mirrors,
- Refraction at single curved surface
- Lensmaker’s equation
- Combination of thin lenses in contact
- Concept of conjugate focii
- Correction of eye defects
- Magnifying power of simple microscope
- Magnifying power of compound microscope,Magnifying power of telescope
- Reflecting telescope

#### CHAPTER X: ELECTROSTATICS

- Frictional electricity
- Charges and their conservation
- Coulomb’s law and dielectric constant
- Forces between multiple electric charges
- Superposition principle of forces,Continuous distribution of charges,Concept of charge density
- Electric field intensity
- Potential energy
- Electric potential due to point charge
- Relation between electric field intensity and potential
- Potential difference
- Volt and electron volt
- Electric dipole and dipole moment
- Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces
- P.E. of single charge and system of charges

#### CHAPTER XI: CURRENT ELECTRICITY

- Ohm’s law
- Resistance
- Specific resistance
- Temperature dependence of resistance
- Colour code of carbon resistor
- Series and parallel combination of resistors
- E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell
- Work done by electric current
- Power in electric circuit
- Cells in series and in parallel
- Elementary idea of secondary cells.

#### CHAPTER XII: MAGNETIC EFFECT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

- Oersted’s experiment
- Biot Savart’s law
- Right hand rule
- Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current
- Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current
- Fleming’s left hand rule
- Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors
- Definition of Ampere
- Force acting on aconductor carrying current in magnetic field
- Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.

#### CHAPTER XIII: MAGNETISM

- Origin of magnetism due to moving charges
- Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current
- Definition of magnetic dipole moment and it’s unit
- Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction
- Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid
- Magnetic field lines
- Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator
- Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements
- Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.

#### CHAPTER XIV: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics,
- Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves
- Electromagnetic spectrum
- Space communication,Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

## PHYSICS-XII

#### CHAPTER I: CIRCULAR MOTION

- Angular displacement
- Angular velocity and angular acceleration
- Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity
- Uniform circular motion
- Radial acceleration
- Centripetal and centrifugal forces
- Banking of roads
- Vertical circular motion due to earth’s gravitation
- Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion
- Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion.

#### CHAPTER II: GRAVITATION

- Newton’s law of gravitation
- Projection of satellite
- Periodic time,
- Statement of Kepler’s laws of motion,
- Binding energy and
- escape velocity of a satellite,
- Weightlessness condition in orbit
- Variation of ‘g’ due to altitude
- lattitude
- depth and motion
- Communication satellite and its uses.

#### CHAPTER III: ROTATIONAL MOTION

- Definition of M.I.
- K.E. of rotating body
- Rolling motion
- Physical significance of M.I.
- Radius of gyration, Torque, Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes,
- M.I. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes
- Angular momentum and its conservation.

#### CHAPTER IV: OSCILLATIONS

- Explanation of periodic motion
- S.H.M.
- Differential equation of linear S.H.M. Projection of U.C.M. on any diameter
- Phase of S.H.M.
- K.E. and P.E. in S.H.M.
- Composition of two S.H.M.’s having same period and along same line
- Simple pendulum
- Damped S.H.M.

#### CHAPTER V: ELASTICITY

- General explanation of elastic property
- Plasticity
- Deformation
- Definition of stress and strain
- Hooke’s law
- Poisson’s ratio
- Elastic energy
- Elastic constants and their relation
- Determination of ‘Y’
- Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load
- Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.

#### CHAPTER VI: SURFACE TENSION

- Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory,
- Surface energy,Surface tension,
- Angle of contact
- Capillarity and capillary action
- Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension.

#### CHAPTER VII: WAVE MOTION

- Simple harmonic progressive waves
- Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves
- Change of phase
- Superposition of waves
- Formation of beats
- Doppler effect in sound.

#### CHAPTER VIII: STATIONARY WAVES

- Study of vibrations in a finite medium
- Formation of stationary waves on string
- Study of vibrations of air columns
- Free and Forced vibrations, Resonance.

#### CHAPTER IX: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES AND RADIATION

- Concept of an ideal gas,
- Assumptions of kinetic theory,
- Mean free path
- Derivation for pressure of a gas
- Degrees of freedom
- Derivation of Boyle’s law
- Thermodynamics- Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature
- 1st law of thermodynamics
- 2nd law of thermodynamics,
- Heat engines and refrigerators
- Qualitative idea of black body radiation,Wein’s displacement law
- Green house effect
- Stefan’s law
- Maxwell distribution
- Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases.

#### CHAPTER X: WAVE THEORY OF LIGHT

- Wave theory of light,
- Huygens’ Principle,
- Construction of plane and spherical wave front
- Wave front and wave normal
- Reflection at plane surface
- Refraction at plane surface
- Polarisation,Polaroids, Plane polarised light,
- Brewster’s law
- Doppler effect in light.

#### CHAPTER XI: INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION

- Interference of light
- Conditions for producing steady interference pattern
- Young’s experiment
- Analytical treatment of interference bands
- Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment
- Diffraction due to single slit
- Rayleigh’s criterion
- Resolving power of a microscope and telescope
- Difference between interference and diffraction.

#### CHAPTER XII: ELECTROSTATICS

- Gauss’ theorem proof and applications
- Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor
- Energy density of a medium
- Dielectrics and electric polarisation
- Concept of condenser
- Capacity of parallel plate condenser
- Effect of dielectric on capacity
- Energy of charged condenser
- Condensers in series and parallel
- van-deGraaff generator.

#### CHAPTER XIII: CURRENT ELECTRICITY

#### CHAPTER XIV: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

- Ampere’s law and its applications,
- Moving coil galvanometer
- Ammeter
- Voltmeter
- Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer
- Cyclotron

#### CHAPTER XV: MAGNETISM

- Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole
- Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron
- Magnetisation and magnetic intensity
- Diamagnetism
- Paramagnetism
- Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory
- Curie temperature.

#### CHAPTER XVI: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTIONS

- Laws of electromagnetic induction
- proof of e = – dØ/ dt Eddy currents
- Self induction and mutual induction
- Need for displacement current
- Transformer,
- Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction
- Alternating currents
- Reactance and impedance
- LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a.c circuit with resistance
- inductance and capacitance
- Resonant circuit
- Wattless current
- AC generator

#### CHAPTER XVII: ELECTRONS AND PHOTONS

- Photoelectric effect
- Hertz and Lenard’s observations
- Einstein’s equation
- Particle nature of light

#### CHAPTER XVIII: ATOMS, MOLECULES AND NUCLEI

- Alpha particle scattering experiment
- Rutherford’s model of atom
- Bohr’s model,
- Hydrogen spectrum,
- Composition and size of nucleus
- Radioactivity
- Decay law
- massenergy relation
- mass defect
- B.E. per nucleon and its variation with mass number,
- Nuclear fission and fusion,
- de Broglie hypothesis
- Matter waves – wave nature of particles
- Wavelength of an electron
- Davisson and Germer experiment
- Continuous and characteristics X-rays.

#### CHAPTER XIX: SEMICONDUCTORS

- Energy bands in solids
- Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors
- P-type and Ntype semiconductor
- P-N junction diode
- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias Rectifiers,
- Zener diode as a voltage regulator
- Photodiode
- Solar cell
- I-V characteristics of LED
- Transistor action and its characteristics
- Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode)
- Transistor as a switch
- Oscillators and Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR)

#### CHAPTER XX: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

- Elements of communication system
- bandwidth of signals
- bandwidth of transmission medium
- Need for modulation
- Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave
- space communication
- Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

## CHEMISTRY-XI

#### UNIT I: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY

- Matter and its nature,
- Dalton’s atomic theory:
- Concept of atom,
- molecule
- element and compound: Laws of chemical combination
- atomic and molecular masses
- mole concept
- molar mass
- percentage composition
- empirical and molecular formulae
- chemical equations and stoichiometry

#### UNIT II: STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS

- Three states of matter
- Intermolecular interactions
- type of bonding
- Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule
- Boyle’s law
- Charles law
- Gay Lussac’s law
- Ideal behaviour
- empirical derivation of gas equation
- Ideal gas equation
- Deviation from ideal behaviour
- liquefaction of gases
- Critical temperature
- Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure
- viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only
- no mathematical derivations).

#### UNIT III: STRUCTURE OF ATOM

- Nature of electromagnetic radiation
- photoelectric effect
- Spectrum of the hydrogen atom
- Bohr model of a hydrogen atom - its postulates
- derivation of the relations for the energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits
- limitations of Bohr’s model
- Dual nature of matter
- de Broglie’s relationship
- Heisenberg uncertainty principle
- Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics
- quantum mechanics
- the quantum mechanical model of the atom
- its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one-electron wave functions: Variation of 𝚿 and 𝚿2 with r for ls and 2s orbitals:
- various quantum numbers (principal angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance;
- shapes of s, p, and d - orbitals
- electron spin and spin quantum number
- Rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle
- Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule
- electronic configuration of elements extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals’

#### UNIT IV: PERIODIC TABLE

- Significance of classification
- brief history of the development of periodic table
- modern periodic law and present form of periodic table
- periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii
- ionic radii. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Ionization enthalpy
- electron gain enthalpy
- electronegativity
- valence.

#### UNIT V: REDOX REACTIONS

- Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction
- redox reactions
- oxidation number rules for assigning oxidation number,
- balancing of redox reactions
- Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions,
- molar conductivities and their variation with concentration:
- Kohlrausch’s law and its applications
- Electrochemical cells
- Electrolytic
- Galvanic cells
- different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half-cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement:
- Nernst equation and its applications;
- Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change:
- Dry cell and lead accumulator;
- Fuel cells

#### UNIT VI:CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

- Meaning of equilibrium the concept of dynamic equilibrium
- Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid-liquid liquid - gas and solid-gas equilibria,
- Henry’s law.
- General characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes
- Equilibrium involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium,
- equilibrium constants (KP and KC) and their significance,
- the significance of ΔG and ΔG° in chemical equilibrium,
- factors affecting equilibrium - concentration pressure
- temperature, the effect of catalyst
- Le Chatelier’s principle
- Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes
- ionization of electrolytes
- various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius Bronsted - Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization
- acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization)
- and ionization constants ionization of water. pH scale common ion effect,
- hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions,
- the solubility of sparingly soluble salts
- solubility products,
- buffer solutions

#### UNIT VII: SURFACE CHEMISTRY

- Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption
- factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids
- catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous
- activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis
- colloidal state: distinction between true solutions
- colloids and suspensions
- Lyophilic
- Lyophobic
- multimolecular and macromolecular colloids
- properties of colloids
- Tyndall effect
- Brownian movement
- electrophoresis
- coagulation
- emulsion – types of emulsions
- Elementary idea of nanomaterials

#### UNIT VIII: NATURE OF CHEMICAL BOND

- Valence electrons
- ionic bond
- Born Haber cycle: covalent bond parameters
- Lewis structure
- polar character of covalent bond
- covalent character of ionic bond
- valence bond theory
- resonance
- geometry of covalent molecules
- VSEPR theory
- concept of hybridization involving s
- p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules
- molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only)
- hydrogen bond

#### UNIT IX: HYDROGEN

- Position of hydrogen in periodic table
- occurrence
- isotopes
- preparation
- properties and uses of hydrogen
- hydridesionic
- covalent and interstitial
- physical and chemical properties of water
- heavy water
- Hydrogen peroxide- preparation
- properties and structure
- hydrogen as a fuel
- Uses of hydrogen peroxide.

#### UNIT X: s-BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)

- Group 1 and Group 2 elements : General introduction
- electronic configuration
- occurrence
- anomalous properties of the first element of each group
- diagonal relationship
- trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy atomic and ionic radii)
- trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen water
- hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate
- sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate
- biological importance of sodium and potassium.
- Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate and industrial uses of lime and limestone
- biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.

#### UNIT XI: p-BLOCK ELEMENTS

- Group Introduction to p-Block elements Group 13 elements: General introduction
- electronic configuration
- occurrence.
- Variation of properties
- oxidation states
- trends in chemical reactivity
- anomalous properties of first element of the group. Boronphysical and chemical properties
- some important compounds: borax
- boric acids
- boron hydrides. Aluminium; uses
- reactions with acids and alkalies. Group 14 elements: General introduction
- electronic configuration
- occurrence
- variation of properties
- oxidation states
- trends in chemical reactivity
- anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon – catenation
- allotropic forms
- physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds; oxides. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride
- silicones
- silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates.

#### UNIT XII:BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

- Tetravalency of carbon: Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p),
- Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur; Homologous series:
- Isomerism
- structural and stereoisomerism
- Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC);
- Covalent bond fission - Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals carbocations and carbanions; stability of earbocations
- free radicals electrophiles and nucleophiles
- Electronic displacement in a covalent bond - Inductive effect electromeric effect,
- resonance and hyperconjugation
- Common types of organic reactions - Substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement

#### UNIT XIII: ALKANES

- Alkanes - Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane): Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes
- Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature
- isomerism
- conformations (ethane only)
- physical properties
- chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation
- combustion and pyrolysis

#### UNIT XIV: ALKENES

- Alkenes - Geometrical isomerism: Mechanism of electrophilic addition:
- Nomenclature
- structure of double bond (ethane)
- geometrical isomerism
- physical properties
- methods of preparation. Chemical reactions; addition of hydrogen
- halogen water
- hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff’s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis
- oxidation
- mechanism of electrophilic addition.

#### UNIT XV: ALKYNES

- Alkynes - Acidic character: Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, and hydrogen halides: Polymerization
- Nomenclature
- structure of triple bond (ethylene)
- physical properties. Methods of preparation
- chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes
- addition reaction of – hydrogen
- halogens
- hydrogen halides
- Water

#### UNIT XVI: AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

- Aromatic hydrocarbons - Nomenclature benzene - structure and aromaticity,
- Introduction
- IUPAC nomenclature
- benzene
- resonance aromaticity
- chemical properties
- mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration
- sulphonaiton
- halogenation
- Friedel Craft alkylation and acylation
- Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

#### UNIT XVII: Environmental chemistry

- Environmental pollution- air
- water and soil pollution
- chemical reactions in atmosphere
- smog
- major atmospheric pollutants
- acid rain
- ozone and its reactions
- effects of depletion of ozone layer
- green house effect and global warming. Pollution due to industrial wastes
- green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution
- strategy for control of environmental pollution.

## CHEMISTRY-XII

#### UNIT I: SOLID STATE

- Classification of solids based on different forces; molecular
- ionic
- covalent and metallic solids
- amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea)
- unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices
- calculation of density of unit cell
- packing in solids
- voids
- number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell
- point defects
- electrical and magnetic properties
- Band theory of metals
- conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.

#### UNIT II: SOLUTIONS AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

- Different methods for expressing the concentration of solution - molality
- molarity
- mole fraction
- percentage (by volume and mass both)
- the vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law
- Ideal and non-ideal solutions vapour pressure - composition plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions
- colligative properties of dilute solutions -a relative lowering of vapour pressure
- depression of mass freezing point
- the elevation of boiling point
- osmotic pressure;
- Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties;
- Abnormal value of molar mass
- van’t Hoff factor and its significance.

#### UNIT III: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGETIC

- Fundamentals of thermodynamics: system and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes
- The first law of thermodynamics
- concept of work heat internal energy
- enthalpy
- heat capacity, molar heat capacity
- Hess’s laws of constant heat summation
- Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization, and solution
- The second law of thermodynamics - Spontaneity of processes: ΔS of the universe and ΔG of the system as criteria for spontaneity
- ΔG° (Standard Gibbs energy change)
- equiliribrium constant
- third law of thermodynamics

#### UNIT IV: ELECTROCHEMISTRY

- Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction
- redox reactions
- oxidation number rules for assigning oxidation number,
- balancing of redox reactions
- Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions,
- molar conductivities and their variation with concentration:
- Kohlrausch’s law and its applications
- Electrochemical cells
- Electrolytic
- Galvanic cells
- different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half-cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement:
- Nernst equation and its applications;
- Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change:
- Dry cell and lead accumulator;
- Fuel cells

#### UNIT V: CHEMICAL KINETICS

- Rate of a chemical reaction
- factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure, and catalyst;
- elementary and complex reactions,
- order and molecularity of reactions
- rate law
- rate constant and its units,
- differential and integral forms of zero and first-order reactions their characteristics and half-lives,
- the effect of temperature on the rate of reactions
- Arrhenius theory
- activation energy and its calculation,
- collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).

#### UNIT VI: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF ELEMENTS

- Principles and methods of extraction – concentration
- oxidation
- reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium
- copper
- zinc and iron

#### UNIT VII: p-BLOCK ELEMENTS

- Group 15 elements: General introduction
- electronic configuration
- occurrence
- oxidation states
- trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation
- properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid
- oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phoshorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous; preparation and properties of phosphine
- halides (PCl 3 ,PCl 5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
- Group 16 elements: General introduction
- electronic configuration
- oxidation states
- occurrence
- trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; preparation
- properties and uses; Classification of oxides
- simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur; preparation
- properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphurc acid; industrial process of manufacture
- properties and uses
- oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). Group 17 elements: General introduction
- electronic configuration
- oxidation states
- occurrence
- trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation
- properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid
- interhalogen compounds
- oxoacids of halogens (structure only). Group 18 elements: General introduction
- electronic configuration. Occurrence
- trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

#### UNIT VIII: d - and f- BLOCK ELEMENTS

- d-Block Elements -
- Transition Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics,
- general trends in properties of the first-row transition elements - physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states,
- atomic radii,
- colour, catalytic behaviour,
- magnetic properties,
- complex formation
- interstitial compounds
- alloy formation;
- Preparation, properties, and uses of $K_2CrO_7$, and $KMnO_4$
- f-Block elements- Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration
- oxidation states
- chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids – Electronic configuration
- oxidation states. Comparison with lanthanoids.

#### UNIT IX: COORDINATION COMPOUNDS

- Introduction to coordination compounds, Werner’s theory;
- ligands,
- co-ordination number, denticity, chelation;
- IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism;
- Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory,
- colour and magnetic properties;
- Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems)

#### UNIT X: HALOGEN DERIVATIVES OF ALKANES (AND ARENES)

- General methods of preparation, properties, and reactions
- Nature of C-X bond
- Mechanisms of substitution reactions
- Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons, and DDT

#### UNIT XI: ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS

- General methods of preparation
- properties, reactions, and uses
- Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols: mechanism of dehydration
- Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. nitration and sulphonation. Reimer - Tiemann reaction
- Ethers: Structure
- Nomenclature
- methods of preparation
- physical and chemical properties, uses.

#### UNIT XII: ALDEHYDES, KETONES AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

- General methods of preparation
- properties, reactions, and uses
- Aldehyde and Ketones
- Nature of carbonyl group;
- Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones;
- Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives) Grignard reagent;
- oxidation,
- reduction (Wolf Kishner and Clemmensen);
- the acidity of α-hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction. Haloform reaction, Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones
- Carboxylic Acids Acidic strength and factors affecting it

#### UNIT XIII: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN

- General methods of preparation. Properties
- reactions and uses.
- Amines: Nomenclature, classification structure, basic character, and identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines and their basic character
- Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry

#### UNIT XIV: BIOMOLECULES

- General introduction and importance of biomolecules
- CARBOHYDRATES - Classification; aldoses and ketoses: monosaccharides (glucose and fructose)
- constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose)
- PROTEINS - Elementary Idea of α-amino acids,
- peptide bond polypeptides
- Proteins:primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only),
- denaturation of proteins
- enzymes
- VITAMINS — Classification and functions
- NUCLEIC ACIDS - Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA
- Biological functions of nucleic acids
- Hormones (General introduction)

#### UNIT XV: POLYMERS

- Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization.
- Some important polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, and rubber.
- Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers.

#### UNIT XVI: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

- Chemicals in medicines : analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines elementary idea of antioxidants
- Chemicals in food : Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
- Cleansing agents : Soaps and detergents, cleansing action

## MATHEMATICS-XI

PART - I

#### CHAPTER I: MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES

- Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles)
- zero angle
- straight angle
- angles in standard position
- coterminal angles
- angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. Sexagesimal system
- circular system
- relation between degree measure and radian measure. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. θ, θ is in radians) (without proof).
- Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2 . θ, θ is in radians (without proof).

#### CHAPTER II: TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

- Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle
- signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants
- trigonometric functions of particular angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, 180°, 270°, 360° )
- domain and range of trigonometric functions
- periodicity of functions
- fundamental identities
- graphs of trigonometric functions
- Graph of y = a sin b xy = a cos bx
- trigonometric functions of negative angles.

#### CHAPTER III: TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF COMPOUND ANGLES

- Introduction
- trigonometric functions of sum and difference
- trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only)
- trigonometric functions of half angles.

#### CHAPTER IV: FACTORIZATION FORMULAE

- Introduction
- Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products
- formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference
- trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle.

#### CHAPTER V: LOCUS

- Introduction
- Definition and equation of locus
- points of locus
- shift of the origin.

#### CHAPTER VI: STRAIGHT LINE

- Revision. Inclination of a line
- slope of a line
- equation of lines parallel to coordinate axes
- intercepts of a line
- revision of different forms of equations of a line
- slope-point form
- slope-intercept form
- two point form
- double intercept form
- other forms of equations of a line
- parametric form
- normal form
- general form
- Theorem 1 : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0
- provided A and B are not both zero
- simultaneously
- always represents straight line. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0, where A, B and C are constants (without proof)
- Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form
- intersection of two lines
- parallel lines
- perpendicular lines
- identical lines
- condition for concurrency of three lines
- angle between lines
- distance of a point from a line
- distance between two parallel lines
- equations of bisectors of angle between two lines
- family of lines
- equation of a straight line parallel to a given line
- equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line
- equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines.

#### CHAPTER VII: CIRCLE AND CONICS

- Revision
- standard equation
- centre-radius form
- diameter form
- general equation
- parametric equations of standard equation
- Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane
- introduction
- focus-directrix property of parabola
- ellipse
- hyperbola
- parabola
- standard equation (different forms of parabola)
- parametric equations
- ellipse
- standard equation
- hyperbola
- standard equation
- parametric equations. Application of conic section.

#### CHAPTER VIII: VECTORS

- Definition
- magnitude of a vector
- free and localized vectors
- types of vectors
- zero vector
- unit vector
- equality at vectors
- negative of a vector
- collinear vectors
- coplanar vectors
- coinitial vectors
- like and unlike vectors
- scalar multiple of a vector
- triangle law
- parallelogram law
- polygon law
- properties of addition of vectors
- three dimensional co-ordinate geometry
- coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space
- co-ordinates of a point in space
- distance between two points in a space
- unit vectors along axes
- position vector of a point in a space
- product of vectors,
- scalar product, definition
- properties,
- vector product, definition
- properties
- simple applications
- work done by force
- resolved part of a force
- moment of a force.

#### CHAPTER IX: LINEAR INEQUATIONS

- Linear inequations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution
- solutions of system of linear inequations in one variable
- Linear inequations in two variables – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution
- solution of linear inequations in two variables & graphical solution
- solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables
- Replacement of a set or domain of a set
- Transposition.

#### CHAPTER X: DETERMINANTS

- Revision
- determinant of order three
- definition
- expansion
- properties of determinants
- minors & co-factors
- applications of determinants
- condition of consistency
- area of a triangle
- Cramer’s rule for system of equations in three variables.

#### CHAPTER XI: MATRICES

- Introduction
- concepts
- notations
- order,types of matrices – zero matrix
- row matrix
- column matrix
- square matrix
- determinant of a square matrix
- diagonal matrix
- scalar matrix
- identity matrix
- triangular matrices
- singular & non-singular matrices
- transpose of a matrix
- symmetric & skew symmetric matrices
- operations on matrices – equality
- addition
- subtraction
- multiplication of a matrix by a scalar
- simple properties
- multiplication of matrices – definition
- properties of matrix multiplication
- properties of transpose of a matrix - (A’)’ = A, (KA)’ = KA’, (AB)’ = B’A'.

PART - II

#### CHAPTER I: SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

- Set – Revision
- subset
- proper improper subset and their properties
- union
- intersection
- disjoint sets
- empty set
- finite & infinite sets
- equal sets
- equivalent sets
- universal set
- Venn diagrams
- complement of a set
- difference of two sets
- power set
- Relations – ordered pairs
- equality of ordered pairs
- Cartesian product of two sets
- No. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets
- Cartesian product of the reals with itself
- definition of relation
- pictorial diagrams
- domain
- codomain and range of a relation
- Type of relations
- one-one
- many-one
- binary equivalence relation
- functions – function as a special kind of relation
- pictorial representation of a function
- domain
- codomain and range of a function
- equal functions
- types of functions - constant function
- identity function
- one-one function
- onto function
- into function
- even & odd functions
- polynomial function
- rational function
- modulus function,signum & greatest integer
- exponential function
- logarithmic function
- functions with their graphs
- sum difference product quotient of functions
- scalar multiplication
- composite function
- inverse function
- binary operations
- real valued function of the real variable
- domain and range of these functions.

#### CHAPTER II: LOGARITHMS

- Introduction
- definition
- properties
- laws of logarithms
- change of base
- characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics
- method of finding mantissa
- method of finding antilogarithm.

#### CHAPTER III: COMPLEX NUMBERS

- Introduction
- need for complex numbers
- definitions –(real parts, imaginary parts, complex conjugates, modulus, argument)
- algebra of complex numbers – equality
- addition
- subtraction
- multiplication
- division
- powers and square root of a complex number
- higher powers of i
- DeMoivre’s formula – (without proof)
- square root of a complex number
- properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers 1) Closure Property 2) Commulative Law 3) Associative law 4) Existence of additive identity 5)Existence of additive inverse.
- Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existance of multiplicative inverse
- properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers
- Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a point in plane
- geometrical meaning of modulus and argument
- polar representation of complex numbers
- Fundamental theorem of algebra
- cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system
- cube roots of unity.

#### CHAPTER IV: SEQUENCES & SERIES

- Revision - sequence A.P.,
- Sum of first n terms of A.P.
- properties of A.P.
- geometric progression – introduction
- general term
- sum of the first ‘n’ terms
- (n terms from the end of G.P.) containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms
- properties of G.P.
- H.P. as a special type of A.P
- Means – arithmetic mean
- geometric mean
- harmonic mean,
- relation between A.M., G.M., H.M.
- Arithmetico-Geometric sequence
- special series
- sum of cube of first n natural numbers
- sum of cube of first n odd natural nos.
- exponential & logarithmic series.

#### CHAPTER V: PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS

- Introduction, fundamental principle of counting,
- factorial notation
- permutations
- when all r objects are distinct
- when all r objects are not distinct
- circular permutations
- simple applications,
- combinations – definition
- properties
- relations between permutations and combinations.

#### CHAPTER VI: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION AND BINOMIAL THEOREM

- Principle of mathematical induction
- simple applications
- binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers
- general term
- particular term
- properties of binomial coefficient with simple application
- binomial theorem for any index (without proof)
- particular cases of binomial theorem
- simple applications

#### CHAPTER VII: LIMITS

- Introduction of concept
- meaning of x→a,the limit of a function
- fundamental theorem on limits
- algebra of limits – standard limits
- without proof
- limits at infinity – concepts
- simple problems.

#### CHAPTER VIII: DIFFERENTIATION

- Definition : derivative
- derivative at a point
- geometrical significance of derivative
- physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement)
- derivatives from first principle - of trigonometric functions
- logarithmic functions
- algebraic functions
- exponential functions
- rules of differentiation – derivative of sum
- difference
- product and quotient.

#### CHAPTER IX: INTEGRATION

- Definition of integration as antiderivative
- geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals
- algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions
- rules of integration.

#### CHAPTER X: STATISTICS

- Measures of dispersion – range
- quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data)
- comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean
- mean deviation about mean
- mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data)
- variance
- standard deviation
- effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation
- combined variance and standard deviation
- co-efficient of variation.

#### CHAPTER XI: PROBABILITY

- Revision types of events – events and algebra of events,
- axiomatic definition of probability
- mutually exclusive and exhaustive events
- mutually exclusive events
- addition theorem – for any two events A and B
- Result on complementary events. Conditional probability – definition
- multiplication theorem
- independent events,
- Baye’s theorem,
- odds in favour and against.

## MATHEMATICS-XII

PART-I

#### CHAPTER I: MATHEMATICAL LOGIC

- Statements - Introduction
- sentences and statement
- truth value of statement
- open sentences
- compound statement
- quantifier and quantified statements
- logical connectives : conjunction
- disjunction
- negation
- implication/ conditional
- biconditional
- truth tables of compound statements
- examples related to real life and mathematics
- statement patterns and logical equivalence - tautology
- contradiction
- contingency
- duality
- negation of compound statement
- contrapositive
- converse
- inverse
- algebra of statements-idempotent law
- associative law
- commutative law
- distributive law
- identity law
- complement law
- involution law
- DeMorgan’s laws
- difference between converse
- contrapositive
- contradiction
- application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples).

#### CHAPTER II: MATRICES

- Elementary transformation of a matrixrevision of cofactor and minor
- elementary row transformation
- elementary column transformation
- inverse of a matrixexistance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix
- inverse by elementary transformation
- adjoint method
- application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method
- inversion method.

#### CHAPTER III: TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

- Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type : sinθ = 0 cosθ = 0 tanθ = 0 sinθ = sinα cosθ = cosα tanθ = tanα sin2 θ = sin2 α cos2 θ = cos2 α tan2 θ = tan2 α acosθ + bsinθ = C
- solution of a triangle : polar coordinates
- sine rule
- cosine rule
- projection rule
- area of a triangle
- application
- Hero’s formula
- Napier Analogues
- inverse trigonometric functions-definitions
- domain
- range
- principle values
- graphs of inverse trigonometric function
- properties of inverse functions

#### CHAPTER IV: PAIR OF STRAIGHT LINES

- Pair of lines passing through origincombined equation
- homogenous equation
- theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse
- acute angle between the lines represented by ax2 +2hxy+by2 =0
- condition for parallel lines
- condition for perpendicular lines
- pair of lines not passing through origin-combined equation of any two lines
- condition that the equation ax2 +2hxy+by2 +2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof)
- acute angle between the lines (without proof)
- condition of parallel and perpendicular lines
- point of intersection of two lines.

#### CHAPTER V: CIRCLE

- Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle,2) general circle
- condition of tangency only for line y = mx + c to the circle x2 + y2 = a2
- tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle
- director circle
- length of tangent segments
- normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point.

#### CHAPTER VI: CONICS

- Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola
- ellipse
- hyperbola; condition of tangency for parabola; ellipse
- hyperbola; tangents in terms of slope for parabola
- ellipse
- hyperbola
- tangents from a point outside conics
- locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular
- properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof).

#### CHAPTER VII: VECTORS

- Revision
- Collinearity and coplanarity of vectors : linear combination of vectors
- condition of collinearity of two vectors
- conditions of coplanarity of three vectors
- section formula : section formula for internal and external division
- midpoint formula
- centroid formula
- scaler triple product : definition
- formula
- properties
- geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product
- application of vectors to geometrymedians of a triangle are concurrent
- altitudes of a triangle are concurrent
- angle bisectors of a triangle are concurrent
- diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse
- median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides
- angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle.

#### CHAPTER VIII: THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

- Direction cosines and direction ratios: direction angles
- direction cosines
- direction ratios
- relation between direction ratio and direction cosines
- angle between two lines
- condition of perpendicular lines.

#### CHAPTER IX: LINE

- Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector
- equation of line passing through two given points
- distance of a point from a line
- distance between two skew lines
- distance between two parallel lines (vector approach).

#### CHAPTER X: PLANE

- Equation of plane in normal form
- equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector
- equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors
- equation of plane passing through three noncollinear points
- equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes
- angle between two planes
- angle between line and plane
- condition for the coplanarity of two lines
- distance of a point from a plane (vector approach)

#### CHAPTER XI: LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS

- Introduction of L.P.P. definition of constraints
- objective function
- optimization
- constraint equations
- nonnegativity restrictions
- feasible and infeasible region
- feasible solutions
- Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L.P.P. different types of L.P.P. problems
- graphical solutions for problem in two variables
- optimum feasible solution.

PART - II

#### CHAPTER I: CONTINUITY

- Continuity of a function at a point : left hand limit
- right hand limit
- definition of continuity of a function at a point
- discontinuity of a function
- types of discontinuity
- algebra of continuous functions
- continuity in interval-definition
- continuity of some standard functionspolynomial
- rational
- trigonometric
- exponential and logarithmic function.

#### CHAPTER II: DIFFERENTIATION

- Revision- revision of derivative
- relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept)
- every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true
- Derivative of composite function-chain rule
- derivative of inverse function
- derivative of inverse trigonometric function : Derivative of implicit function definition and examples
- derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function
- exponential and logarithmic functionderivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions b) quotient of functions c) higher order derivative second order derivative d)

#### CHAPTER III: APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVE

- Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point
- Rolle’s theorem
- and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof)
- derivative as a rate measure-introduction
- increasing and decreasing function
- approximation (without proof)
- Maxima and minimaintroduction of extrema and extreme values
- maxima and minima in a closed interval
- first derivative test
- second derivative test.

#### CHAPTER IV: INTEGRATION

- Indefinite integrals-methods of integration
- substitution method
- integrals of the various types
- integration by parts (reduction formulae are not expected)
- integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors
- non-repeated quadratic factors
- definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum
- fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof)
- evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution 2) integration by parts properties of definite integrals.

#### CHAPTER V: APPLICATIONS OF DEFINITE INTEGRAL

- Area under the curve : area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems)
- area bounded by two curves
- volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems).

#### CHAPTER VI: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

- Definition-differential equation
- order
- degree
- general solution
- particular solution of differential equation
- formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by eliminating arbitary constants (at most two constants)
- solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method
- homogeneous differential equation (equation reducible to homogeneous form are not expected)
- Linear differential equation
- applications: population growth
- bacterial colony growth
- surface area
- Newton’s laws of cooling
- radioactive decay.

#### CHAPTER VII: STATISTICS

- Bivariate frequency distribution - bivariate data
- tabulation of bivariate data
- scatter diagram
- covariance of ungrouped data
- covariance for bivariate frequency distribution
- Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation.

#### CHAPTER VIII: PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

- Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable,
- discrete and continuous random variable
- probability mass function (p.m.f.)
- probability distribution of a discrete random variable
- cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable
- expected value
- variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable
- probability density function (p.d.f.)
- distribution function of a continuous random variable.

#### CHAPTER IX: BERNOULLI TRIALS AND BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION

- Definition of Bernoulli trial
- conditions for Binomial distribution
- binomial distribution (p.m.f.) mean
- variance and standard deviation
- calculation of probabilities (without proof)
- Normal distribution : p.d.f. mean
- variance and standard deviation
- standard normal variable
- simple problems (without proof).

## BIOLOGY-XI

SECTION I - BOTANY

### UNIT I: DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD

#### Diversity in organisms:

- Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea.
- Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature - meaning of the terms taxonomy
- systematics
- classification and nomenclature
- Need of classification. Three domains of life
- Concept of species. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples.
- Binomial nomenclature explanation significance and examples.
- Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples.
- Lichens - Meaning characters examples and importance.
- Viruses and viroids - Definitions characters types with examples
- Economic importance and list of viral diseases

#### Kingdom Plantae:

- Salient features of major plant groups - Algae
- Bryophyta
- Pteridophyta
- Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Three to five salient features and two examples of each category.
- Botanical gardens and herbaria - Meaning importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India.

### UNIT II: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELL

#### Biochemistry of cell:

- Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.
- Structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in brief.
- Enzymes - Definition, Types, general properties
- Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief.

#### Cell Division:

- Cell cycle
- Mitosis
- Meiosis

### UNIT III: STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN PLANTS

#### Morphology of Plants:

- Morphology,
- anatomy and functions of different parts
- Root, stem, leaf,
- inflorescence,
- flower, fruit and seed. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus)
- Plant tissues.

### UNIT IV: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

#### Plant Water Relations and Mineral Nutrition:

- Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases - Absorption of water and minerals,Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Active and passive absorption in brief.
- Guttation Ascent of sap, root pressure concept and cohesion - tension theory. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account.
- Transpiration – structure of stomata mechanism of opening and closing of stomata Role of K+ ions
- Role of water and minerals - macronutrients and micronutrients and their role.
- Mineral deficiency symptoms
- Mineral toxicity
- Elementary idea of Hydroponics
- Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle
- biological nitrogen fixation)

#### Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy

- Germination - Hypogeal
- epigeal and viviparous. Definition and characteristics of growth. Phases of growth
- Conditions of growth
- Differentiation
- de- differentiation
- redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators - auxins
- gibberellins
- cytokinines
- ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism
- Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization.

SECTION II – ZOOLOGY

### UNIT I: DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD

#### Kingdom Animalia:

- Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia.
- Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera
- co elenterata ctenophora
- Platyhelminthes
- Nemathelminthes
- Annelida
- Arthropoda
- Mollusca
- Echinodermata and Hemichordata.
- Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata
- Cephalochordata
- Cyclostomata
- Chondrichthyes
- Osteichthyes
- Amphibia
- Reptilia
- Aves and Mammalia.
- Zoological parks and Museums - General idea with list.

### UNIT II: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELL

#### Organization of Cell:

- Cell theory - brief account
- Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell - structure and examples
- Plant cell and animal cell.
- Nuclear organization - Nucleus
- nucleolus and nucleoplasm.
- Cell wall and cell membrane - (fluid mosaic model).
- Cell organelles: Plastids
- Mitochondria
- Golgi complex
- Lysosomes
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Vacuoles
- Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions).
- Microbodies
- cytoskeleton
- cilia and flagella.

### UNIT III: STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN ANIMALS

#### Study of Animal Tissues:

- Animal tissues- types
- Epithelial tissues - simple epithelium (squamous, cuboidal, columnar, Ciliated, glandular).
- compound epithelium (stratified).
- Connective tissue - (Areolar, Adipose, Tendons, Ligaments, Cartilage and Bone).
- Muscular tissue - (Smooth, striated and cardiac).
- Nervous tissue (Neurons, glial cells and types of neurons).

#### Study of Animal Type:

- Morphology anatomy and functions of digestive
- circulatory
- respiratory
- nervous and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only)

### UNIT IV: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

#### Human Nutrition:

- Digestive system in brief
- Physiology of digestion, gastrointestinal hormones, Peristalsis.
- Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
- Absorption, assimilation and egestion
- Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM
- indigestion
- constipation
- Jaundice
- vomiting and diarrhoea

#### Human Respiration:

- Respiratory organs in animals (recall only)
- Respiratory system in brief
- Breathing- inspiration and expiration
- Exchange of gases
- transport of CO 2 and O2
- tissue respiration.
- Regulation of Respiration
- Respiratory volumes.
- Respiratory disorders- Asthma,
- Emphysema and occupational lung diseases.

#### Human skeleton and Locomotion:

- Brief account of human skeleton: A. Axial Skeleton B. Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical)
- Types of joints - synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses.
- Types of diarthroses - ball and socket, hinge, condyloid, pivot, saddle and gliding joints.
- Types of Movement- Ciliary, Flagellar
- Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction.
- Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis, Osteoporosis, arthritis
- muscular dystrophy tetany and gout.

## BIOLOGY-XII

SECTION I - BOTANY

### UNIT I: GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

#### Genetic Basis of Inheritance:

- Mendelian inheritance
- Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups)
- Pleiotropy,Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance

#### Genetics its nature

- expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron
- muton and recon.
- DNA as genetic material,
- structure of DNA as given by Watson and Crick’s model
- DNA Packaging
- semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA.
- RNA: General structure types and functions
- Protein Synthesis;
- central dogma,
- Transcription;
- Translation-Genetic Code,
- Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation)

### UNIT II: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION

#### Biotechnology - Process and Application:

- Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology):
- Transposons
- Plasmids
- Bacteriophages; Producing Restriction Fragments
- Preparing and cloning a DNA Library
- Gene Amplification (PCR).
- Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents)

### UNIT III: BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE

#### Enhancement in Food Production:

- Plant Breeding
- Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular
- Totipotency
- Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief)
- Callus Culture
- Suspension Culture
- Single Cell Protein
- Biofortification.

#### Microbes in Human Welfare:

- Microbes in Household food processing
- Microbes in Industrial Production
- Microbes in Sewage Treatment
- Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production
- Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
- Microbes as Biofertilizers.

### UNIT IV: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

#### Photosynthesis:

- Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role
- Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis
- Photorespiration
- Factors affecting Photosynthesis
- Law of limiting factors.

#### Respiration:

- ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis
- TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration
- Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway
- Respiratory quotient of Nutrients
- Significance of Respiration.

### UNIT V: REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

#### Reproduction in Plants:

- Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual)
- Asexual reproduction; uniparental modesvegetative propagation
- micropropagation Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte
- Structure of anatropous ovule
- Development of female Gametophyte
- Pollination: Types and Agencies
- Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction.
- Double Fertilization: Process and Significance
- Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo
- development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis
- parthenocarpy
- polyembryony. Significance of seed and fruit formation.

### UNIT VI: ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

#### Organisms and Environment -I : Habitat and Niche

- Ecosystems: Patterns
- components
- productivity and decomposition
- energy flow; pyramids of number
- biomass
- energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). Ecological succession
- Ecological servicescarbon fixation
- pollination
- oxygen release. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects
- solid waste management
- Green house effect and global warming
- ozone depletion
- deforestation
- case studies (any two).

SECTION II – ZOOLOGY

### UNIT I: GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

#### Origin and the Evolution of Life:

- Origin of Life: Early Earth
- Spontaneous
- assembly of organic compounds
- Evolution: Darwin’s contribution
- Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution
- Biological Evidences
- Mechanism of evolution; Gene flow and genetic drift; HardyWeinberg principle; Adaptive radiation.
- Origin and Evolution of Human being.

#### Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance:

- The Chromosomal Theory
- Chromosomes
- Linkage and Crossing Over.
- Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness).
- Sex Determination in Human being birds honey bee.
- Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia.
- Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome
- Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome.

### UNIT II: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION

#### Genetic Engineering and Genomics:

- DNA Finger Printing
- Genomics and Human Genome Project
- Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production
- Gene Therapy
- Transgenic animals.

### UNIT III: BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE

#### Human Health and Diseases:

- Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types
- Vaccines
- Structure of Antibody
- Antigen-Antibody Complex
- Antigens on blood cells.
- Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis, Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold and ring worm).
- Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Cancer
- AIDS

#### Animal Husbandry

- Management of Farms and Farm Animals
- Dairy
- Poultry
- Animal Breeding
- Bee-Keeping
- Fisheries
- Sericulture Lac culture

### UNIT IV: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

#### Circulation:

- Blood composition and coagulation
- Blood groups
- Structure and pumping action of Heart
- Blood Vessels
- Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
- Heart beat and Pulse
- Rhythmicity of Heart beat
- Cardiac output
- Regulation of cardiac activity
- Blood related disorders: Hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, and heart failure.
- ECG
- Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions.

#### Excretion and osmoregulation:

- Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism
- ureotelism
- uricotelism
- Excretory System
- Composition and formation of urine
- Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation
- Regulation of kidney function: reninangiotensin
- atrial natriuretic factor
- ADH and Diabetes inspidus
- role of other organs in excretion
- Disorders; Kidney failure
- Dialysis
- Kidney stone (renal calculi)
- Transplantation
- Uraemia
- nephritis.

#### Control and Co-ordination:

- Nervous System Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord
- brief idea about PNS and ANS
- Transmission of nerve impulse
- Reflex action
- Sensory receptors (eye and ear)
- Sensory perception
- general idea of other sense organs
- Endocrine System Endocrine glands Hormones and their functions Mechanism of hormone action.
- Hormones as messengers and regulators.
- Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism, Acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, Diabetes mellitus, Addison’s disease)

### UNIT V: REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

#### Human Reproduction:

- Reproductive system in male and female
- Histology of testis and ovary. Reproductive cycle. Production of gametes,
- fertilization,
- implantation
- Embryo development up to three germinal layers.
- Pregnancy, placenta, parturition and lactation (Elementary idea).
- Reproductive health-birth control
- Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.MTP
- Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologiesIVF
- ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

### UNIT VI: ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

#### Organisms and Environment-II:

- Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism
- competition
- predation
- parasitism
- population attributes- growth, birth rate and death rate age distribution.
- Biodiversity and its conservationBiodiversity- concept, patterns, importance, loss.
- Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation
- Hotspots
- endangered organisms,extinction,red data book
- biosphere reserves,
- national parks and sanctuaries
- Environmental issues: air pollution and its control
- water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. (Case studies any two)