## Andhra Pradesh Board

## PHYSICS-XI

#### UNIT I: PHYSICAL WORLD

- What is Physics?
- Scope and excitement of Physics
- Physics
- technology and Society
- Fundamental forces in nature
- Nature of Physical Laws

#### UNIT II: UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS

- Units of measurements
- System of Units
- S I Units
- Fundamental and Derived units
- Least count
- Significant figures
- Errors in measurements
- Dimensions of Physics quantities
- Dimensional analysis and its applications
- The International System of Units
- Measurement of Length
- Measurement of Mass
- Measurement of Time
- Accuracy
- Precision of instruments and errors in Measurement
- Significant Figures
- Dimensions of Physical Quantities
- Dimensional Formulae and dimensional equations
- Dimensional Analysis and Its Applications

#### UNIT III: MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

- Motion in a straight line
- Position
- Path Length and Displacement
- Average Velocity and Speed
- Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
- Acceleration
- Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion
- Relative velocity

#### UNIT IV: MOTION IN A PLANE

- Motion in a plane
- Projectile Motion
- Uniform Circular Motion
- Scalars and Vectors
- Multiplication of Vectors by real numbers
- Addition and Subtraction of Vectors-graphical method
- Resolution of Vectors
- Vector addition - analytical method, Motion in a plane
- Motion in a plane with constant acceleration
- Relative velocity in two dimensions

#### UNIT V: LAWS OF MOTION

- Force and inertia
- Newton’s First law of motion: Momentum
- Newton’s Second Law of motion
- Impulses: Newton’s Third Law of motion
- Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications
- Equilibrium of concurrent forces
- Static and Kinetic friction
- Laws of friction
- Rolling friction
- Dynamics of uniform circular motion
- Centripetal force
- Examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road)
- Aristotle’s Inertia
- The Law of Inertia
- Conservation of momentum
- Equilibrium of a particle
- Common Forces in Mechanics

#### UNIT VI: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

- Work done by a constant force and a variable force
- Kinetic and potential energies
- Work-energy theorem
- power
- The potential energy of spring conservation of mechanical energy
- Conservative and non-conservative forces
- Motion in a vertical circle
- Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions
- Notions of Work and Kinetic Energy : The work-energy theorem
- Work done by a variable force
- The work-energy theorem for a variable force
- Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of Energy
- Collisions

#### UNIT VII: SYSTEM OF PARTICLE AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

- Centre of the mass of a two-particle system
- Centre of the mass of a rigid body
- Basic concepts of rotational motion
- Moment of a force
- Torque
- Angular momentum
- Conservation of angular momentum and its applications
- The moment of inertia
- The radius of gyration
- Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects
- Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications
- Equilibrium of rigid bodies
- Rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion
- Comparison of linear and rotational motions
- Linear Momentum of a System of particles
- Vector product of Two Vectors
- Angular Velocity and its relation with linear velocity
- Torque and Angular Momentum
- Moment of Inertia
- Theorems of perpendicular and parallel Axis
- Dynamics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis
- Angular momentum in case of rotations about a fixes axis
- Rolling Motion

#### UNIT VIII: OSCILLATIONS

- Oscillations and periodic motion - time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time
- Periodic functions
- Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation’s phase
- Oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant: energy in S.H.M. - Kinetic and potential energies
- Simple pendulum - derivation of expression for its time period
- Periodic and Oscillatory Motions
- Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion
- Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion
- Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
- Forced Oscillations and Resonance

#### UNIT IX: GRAVITATION

- Introduction
- Kepler’s Law
- The universal law of gravitation
- The Gravitational Constant
- Acceleration due to Gravity of the Earth
- Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of Earth
- Gravitational potential energy
- Gavitational potential
- Escape velocity
- Motion of a satellite
- Orbital velocity
- Time period and energy of satellite
- Geostationary and Polar satellites
- Weightlessness

#### UNIT X: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

- Introduction
- Elastic behavior of Solids
- Stress and Strain
- Hooke’s Law
- Stress-strain curve
- Elastic Module
- Applications of elastic behavior of Materials

#### UNIT XI: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

- Introduction
- Pressure
- Streamline flow
- Bernoulli’s principle
- Viscosity
- Reynolds number
- Surface Tension

#### UNIT XII: THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

- Introduction
- Temperature and Heat
- Measurement of Temperature
- Ideal-Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature
- Thermal Expansion
- Specific Heat Capacity
- Calorimetry
- Change of State
- Heat transfer
- Newton’s Law of Cooling

#### UNIT XIII: THERMODYNAMICS

- Introduction
- Thermal equilibrium
- Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics,
- Heat, Internal Energy and Work
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Specific Heat Capacity
- Thermodynamics State Variables and Equation of State
- Thermodynamics Processes
- Heat Engines
- Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
- Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Reversible and Irreversible Processes
- Carnot Engine

#### UNIT XIV: KINETIC THEORY

- Introduction
- Molecular Nature of Matter
- Behaviour of Gases
- Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
- Law of equipartition of energy
- Specific Heat Capacity
- Mean Free Path

## PHYSICS-XII

#### UNIT I: WAVES

- Introduction
- Transverse and longitudinal waves
- Displacement relation in a progressive wave
- The speed of a travelling wave
- The Principle of superposition of waves
- Reflection of waves
- Beats
- Doppler effect

#### UNIT II: RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

- Introduction
- Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors
- Refraction
- Total Internal Reflection
- Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses
- Refraction through a Prism
- Dispersion by a Prism
- Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight
- Optical Instrumets

#### UNIT III: WAVE OPTICS

- Introduction, Huygens Principle,
- Refraction and reflection of plane waves using Huygens Principle,
- Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves
- Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment
- Diffraction
- Polarisation

#### UNIT IV: ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS

- Introduction
- Electric Charges
- Conductors and Insulators
- Charging by Induction
- Basic Properties of Electric Charge
- Coulomb’s Law
- Forces between Multiple Charges
- Electric Field
- Electric Field Lines
- Electric Flux
- Electric Dipole
- Dipole in a Uniform External Field
- Continuous Charge Distribution
- Gauss’s Law
- Application of Gauss’s Law

#### UNIT V: ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE

- Introduction
- Electrostatic Potential
- Potential due to a point Charge
- Potential due to an Electric Dipole
- Potential due to a System of Charges
- Equipotential Surfaces
- Potential Energy of a System of Charges
- Potential Energy in an External Field
- Electrostatics of Conductors
- Dieletrics and Polarisation
- Capacitors and Capacitance
- The Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance
- Combination of Capacitor
- Energy Stored in a Capacitor
- Van de Graaff Generator

#### UNIT VI: CURRENT ELECTRICITY

- Introduction
- Electric Current
- Electric Currents in Conductors
- Ohm’s law
- Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity
- Limitations of Ohm’s Law
- Resistivity of Various Materials
- Temperature Dependence of Resistivity
- Electrical Energy
- Power
- Combination of Resistors- Series and Parallel
- Cells
- Emf
- Internal Resistance
- Cells in Series and in Parallel
- Kirchhoff’s Laws
- Wheatstone bridge
- Metre Bridge
- Potentiometer

#### UNIT VII: MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNESTISM

- Introduction
- Magnetic Force
- Motion in a Magnetic Field
- Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields
- Magnetic Field due to a Current Element
- Biot-Savart Law
- Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop
- Amper’s Circuital Law
- The Solenoid and the Toroid
- Force between Two Parallel Currents
- The Ampere (Unit)
- Torque on Current Loop
- Magnetic Dipole
- The Moving Coil Galvanometer

#### UNIT VIII: MAGNETISM AND MATTER

- Introduction
- The Bar Magnet
- Magnetism and Gauss’s Law
- The Earth’s Magnetism
- Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity
- Magnetic Properties of Materials
- Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets

#### UNIT IX: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

- Introduction
- The Experiments of Faraday and Henry
- Magnetic Flux
- Faraday’s Law of Induction
- Lenz’s Law and Conservation of Energy
- Motional Electromotive Force
- Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study
- Eddy Currents
- Inductance
- AC Generator

#### UNIT X: ALTERNATING CURRENT

- Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law
- Induced emf and current
- Lenz’s Law
- Eddy currents
- Self and mutual inductance
- Alternating currents
- Peak and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage: reactance and impedance
- LCR series circuit
- Resonance
- Power in AC circuits
- Wattless current
- AC generator
- Transformer
- Introduction
- Ac Voltage Applied to a Register
- Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors - Phasors
- AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor
- AC Voltage Applied to an Capacitor
- AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit
- Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor
- LC Oscillations
- Transformers

#### UNIT XI: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

#### UNIT XII: DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER

- Introduction
- Electron Emission
- Photoelectric Effect
- Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
- Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light
- Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation
- Particle Nature of Light: The Photon
- Wave Nature of Matter
- Davisson and Germmer Experiment

#### UNIT XIII: ATOMS

- Introduction
- Alpha-Particle Scattering
- Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of Atom,
- Atomic Spectra
- Bohr model
- Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
- The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom
- de Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Second Postulate of Quantisation

#### UNIT XIV: NUCLEI

- Introduction
- Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus
- Atomic masses
- Mass-energy relation
- Size of the Nucleus
- Mass- Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy
- Nuclear Force
- Radioactivity
- Nuclear Energy

#### UNIT XV: SEMICONDUCTOR ELCTRONICS: MATERIALS,DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS

- Introduction
- Classification of Metals
- Conductors and Semiconductors
- Intrinsic Semiconductor
- Extrinsic Semiconductor
- p-n Junction
- Semiconductor diode
- Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
- Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes
- Junction Transistor
- Digital Electronics and Logic Gates
- Integrated Circuits

#### UNIT XVI: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

- Introduction
- Elements of a Communication System
- Basic terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems
- Bandwidth of Signals
- Bandwidth of Transmission Medium
- Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
- Modulation and its Necessity
- Amplitude Modulation
- Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave
- Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave

## CHEMISTRY-XI

#### UNIT I: ATOMIC STRUCTURE

- Sub-atomic particles
- Atomic models-Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom
- Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom
- Bohr’s model for hydrogen atom
- Towards quantum mechanical model of the atom
- Quantum mechanical model of an atom
- Important features of quantum mechanical model of atom-orbitals and quantum numbers-shapes of atomic orbitals-energies of orbitals-filling of orbitals in atoms
- Aufbau principle
- Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity - Electronic configurations of atoms-Stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals

#### UNIT II: CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES

- Need to classify elements
- Genesis of periodic classification
- Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table
- Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100
- Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table
- Electronic configuration and types of elements s,p,d and f blocks
- Trends in physical properties-periodic trends in chemical properties-Periodic trends and chemical reactivity

#### UNIT III: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

- Kossel-Lewis approach to chemical bonding
- Ionic or electrovalent bond
- Bond parameters
- The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR)theory
- Valence bond theory
- Hybridization
- Coordinate bond
- Molecular orbital theory-bonding in some homonuclear diatomic molecules,
- Hydrogen bonding

#### UNIT IV: STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS

- Intermolecular forces
- Thermal energy
- Intermolecular forces Vs Thermal interactions
- The gaseous state
- The gas laws
- Ideal gas equation
- Graham’s law of diffusion
- Dalton’s law of partial pressures
- Kinetic molecular theory of gases
- Kinetc gas equation of an ideal gas (no derivation)
- Deduction of gas laws from kinetic gas equation
- Distribution of molecular speeds - rms
- Average and most probable speeds - kinetic energy of gas molecules
- Behaviour of real gases - deviation from ideal gas behavior - compressibility factor Vs pressure diagrams of real gases
- Liquefaction of gases
- Liquid state - properties of liquids in terms of inter molecular interactions - vapour pressure
- Viscosity and surface tension (Qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivation)

#### UNIT V: STOICHIOMETRY

- Some basic concepts
- Laws of chemical combinations
- Gay Lussac’s law of Gaseous volumes
- Dalton’s atomic theory
- Avogadro law
- Atomic and molecular masses - mole concept and molar mass concept of equivalent weight
- Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds
- Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations
- Methods of expressing concentrations of solutions
- Redox reactions
- Oxidation number concept
- Types of redox reactions
- Balancing of redox reactions - oxidation number method - half reaction (ionelectron)method
- Redox reactions in titrimetry

#### UNIT VI: THERMODYNAMICS

- Thermodynamic terms,
- Applications - work-enthalpy-extensive and intensive properties-heat capacity
- Enthalpy
- Heat capacity
- Molar heat capacity
- Measurement of “U and H”: Calorimetry
- Enthalpy change
- ‘rH’ of reactions
- Enthalpies for different types of reactions
- Spontaneity
- Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium
- Absolute entropy and the third law of thermodynamics

#### UNIT VII: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND ACIDS-BASES

- Equilibrium in physical process
- Equilibrium in chemical process - dynamic equilibrium
- Law of chemical equilibrium - law of mass action and equilibrium constant
- Homogeneous equilibria
- Equilibrium constant in gaseous systems
- Relationship between (KP and KC)
- Heterogeneous equilibria
- Applications of equilibrium constant
- Relationship between equilibrium constant ‘K’
- Reaction Quotient ‘Q’ and Gibbs energy ‘G’
- Factors affecting equilibria - Le-chatelier’s principle application to industrial synthesis of ammonia and sulphur trioxide
- Temperature
- The effect of catalyst
- Le Chatelier’s principle
- Ionic equilibrium in solutions
- Acids, bases and salts - Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts of acids and bases
- Ionisation of acids and bases
- Hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions
- Buffer solutions
- Solubility equilibria of sparingly soluble salts Solubility product constant-common ion effect on solubility of Ionic salts

#### UNIT VIII: HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS

- Position of hydrogen in the periodic table
- Dihydrogen - Occurance and isotopes
- Preparation of dihydrogen
- Properties of dihydrogen
- Hydrides: Ionic, covalent, and non-stiochiometric hydrides
- Water: Physical properties
- Structure of water
- Ice chemical properties of water
- Hard and soft water temporary and permanent hardness of water
- Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation
- Physical properties
- Structure and chemical properties
- Storage and uses
- Heavy water
- Hydrogen as a fuel

#### UNIT IX: s- BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)

- GROUP 1 ELEMENTS: Alkali metals
- Electronic configuration
- Atomic and ionic radii
- Ionization enthalpy
- Hydration enthalpy
- Physical properties
- Chemical properties
- Uses
- General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals: oxides; halides; salts of oxy acids
- Anamalous properties of lithium
- Some important compounds of sodium: Sodium carbonate; sodium chloride; sodium hydroxide; sodium hydrogen carbonate
- Biological importance of sodium and potassium
- Group 2 Elements: Alkaline earth elements
- Electronic configuration
- Ionization enthalpy
- Hydration enthalpy
- Physical properties
- Chemical properties
- uses
- General characteristics of compounds of the alkaline earth metals, oxides, hydroxides, halides, salts of oxyacids (carbonates, sulphates and nitrates)
- Anomalous behavior of beryllium; its diagonal relationship with aluminium
- Some important compounds of calcium
- Biological importance of calcium and magnesium

#### UNIT X: p-BLOCK ELEMENTS GROUP 13 (BORON FAMILY)

- Introduction Ac Voltage Applied to a Register Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors - Phasors
- AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor
- AC Voltage Applied to an Capacitor
- AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit
- Power in AC Circuit
- The Power Factor LC Oscillations Transformers

#### UNIT XI: p-BLOCK ELEMENTS GROUP 14 (CARBON FAMILY)

- General introduction - Electronic configuration
- Atomic radii
- Ionization enthalpy
- Electro negativity
- Physical & chemical properties
- Important trends and anomalous properties of carbon
- Allotropes of carbon
- Uses of carbon
- Some important compounds of carbon and silicon-carbonmonoxide
- Carbon dioxide
- Silica
- Silicones
- Silicates and zeolites

#### UNIT XII: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

- Definition of terms: Air, Water and Soil pollutions
- Environmental pollution
- Atmospheric pollution
- Acid rain: Particulate pollutants
- Stratospheric pollution
- Water pollution
- Soil Pollution: Pesticides, industrial wastes
- Strategies to control environmental pollution
- Green chemistry

#### UNIT XIII: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES AND HYDROCARBONS

- General introduction
- Tetravalency of Carbon: shapes of organic compounds
- Structural representations of organic compounds
- Classification of organic compounds
- Nomenclature of organic compounds
- Isomerism
- Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms
- Methods of purification of organic compounds
- Qualitative elemental analysis of organic compounds
- Quantitative elemental analysis of organic compounds
- HYDROCARBONS: Classification of hydrocarbons
- Alkanes - Nomenclature
- Isomerism (structural and conformations of ethane only)
- Preparation of alkanes
- Properties of alkanes
- Alkenes - Nomenclature
- Structure of ethane
- Isomerism (structural and geometrical)
- Methods of preparation of alkenes
- Properties of alkenes
- Alkynes - Nomenclature and isomerism
- Structure of acetylene methods of preparation of acetylene
- Physical properties and chemical reactions of alkynes
- Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and isomerism
- Structure of benzene
- Resonance and aromaticity
- Preparation of benzene
- Physical and chemical properties of benzene
- Directive influence of functional groups in mono substituted benzene
- Carcinogenicity and toxicity

## CHEMISTRY-XII

#### UNIT I: SOLID STATE

- General Characteristic of Solid State
- Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
- Classification of Crystalline Solids
- Probing the structure of solids: X-Ray Crystallography
- Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
- Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
- Close Packed Structures
- Packing Efficiency
- Calculation involving unit cell Dimensions
- Imperfection in Solids
- Electrical Properties
- Magnetic Properties

#### UNIT II: SOLUTIONS

- Types of Solutions
- Expressing concentration
- Solubility
- Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
- Ideal and non-ideal solutions
- The elevation of boiling point
- Osmotic pressure
- Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass
- Abnormal Molar Masses

#### UNIT III: ELOCTROCHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS ELECTROCHEMISTRY

- Electrochemical Cells
- Galvanic Cells
- Nernst Equation
- Conductance Electrolytic Solutions
- Electrolytic Cell and Electrolysis
- Batteries
- Fuel Cells
- Corrosion
- CHEMICAL KINETICS: Rate of Chemical Reaction
- Factors influencing Rate of Reaction
- Integrated Rate Equations
- Pseudo First Order Reaction
- Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction
- Collision Theory of Chemical Reaction Rates

#### UNIT IV: SURFACE CHEMISTRY

- Adsorption
- Catalysis
- Colloids
- Classification of Colloids
- Emulsions
- Colloid Around Us

#### UNIT V: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MEALLURGY

- Occurrence of Metals
- Concentration of Ores
- Extraction of crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
- Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
- Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
- Oxidation and Reduction
- Refining of Crude Metal
- Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

#### UNIT VI: p-BLOCK ELEMENTS GROUP -15 ELEMENTS

- Introduction
- Dinitrogen
- Ammonia
- Oxides of nitrogen
- Nitric Acid
- Phosphorous –allotropic forms
- Phosphine
- Phosphorous halides
- Oxoacids of phosphorous
- GROUP - 16 ELEMENTS Introduction
- Dioxygen
- Simple Oxides
- Ozone
- Sulphur - Allotropic forms
- Sulphur dioxide
- Oxoacids of Sulphur
- Sulphuric Acid
- GROUP - 17 ELEMENTS Introduction
- Chlorine
- Hydrogen Chloride
- Oxoacids
- Interhalogen Compounds
- GROUP - 18 ELEMENTS Introduction - Occurance
- Electronic configuration
- Ionisation Enthalpy
- Atomic radii
- Electron Gain Enthalpy
- Physical and Chemical Properties

#### UNIT VII: d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS & COORDINATION COMPOUNDS

- Position in the Periodic Table
- Electronic Configuration
- General Properties of Transition Elements (d-Block)
- Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
- Inner Transition Elements (f-Block)
- Actinoids
- Some Applications of d and f Block Elements
- Werner’ s Theory of Coordination Compounds
- Definitions of Some Terms used in Coordination Compounds
- Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
- Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
- Bonding in Coordination Compounds
- Bonding in Metal Carbonyls
- Stability of Coordination Compounds
- Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

#### UNIT VIII: POLYMERS

- Classification of Polymers
- Types of Polymerization Reactions
- Molecular Mass of Polymers
- Biodegradable Polymers

#### UNIT IX: BIOEMOLECULES

- Carbohydrates
- Proteins
- Enzymes
- Vitamins
- Nucleic acids
- Hormones

#### UNIT X: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

- Drugs and their classification
- Drug - Target Interaction
- Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drug
- Chemicals in Food
- Cleansing Agents

#### UNIT XI: HALO ALKANES AND HALOARENES

- Classification
- Nature of C-X bond
- Methods of Preparation
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Polyhalogen Compounds

#### UNIT XII: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTANING C, H AND O (Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids) Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers

- Classification - Alcohols , Phenols and Ethers
- Nomenclature - Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Structures of Hydroxy and Ether Functional Groups, Alcohols and Phenols
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Some Commercially Important Alcohols, Ethers
- ALDEHYDES, KETONES Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
- Preparation of Aldehydes and ketones
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
- CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
- Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Uses of Carboxylic Acids

#### UNIT XIII: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN

- AMINES- Structure of Amines
- Classification
- Nomenclature
- Preparation of Amines,
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- DIAZONIUM SALTS- Methods of Preparation of Diazonium Salts
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds
- CYANIDES AND ISOCYANIDES- Structure of cyanides and isocyanides
- Preparation

## MATHEMATICS-XI

#### MATHEMATICS - I(A)

#### UNIT I: FUNCTIONS

- Introduction
- Ordered Pairs
- Types of Function-Definitions
- Inverse Functions and Theorems
- Real valued functions (Demain, Range and Inverse)

#### UNIT II: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

- Introduction
- Principles of Mathematical Induction and Theorems
- Applications of Mathematical Induction
- Problems on divisibility

#### UNIT III: MATRICES

- Introduction
- Matrices
- Algebra of matrices
- Type of matrices and matrices of order two and three
- Scalar multiple of a matrix and multiplication of matrices
- Transpose of a matrix
- Determinants
- Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
- Consistency and Inconsistency of system of Simultaneous Equations
- Rank of a Matrix
- Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations

#### UNIT IV: ADDITION OF VECTORS

- Introduction
- Vectors as a triad of real numbers
- Some basic concepts Classification (Types) of Vectors
- Sum (Addition) of Vectors
- Scalar Multiplication of a vector
- Angle between two non- zero vectors
- Linear Combination of Vectors
- Components of a vectors in Three Dimensions
- Vector Equations of Line and Plane

#### UNIT V: PRODUCT OF VECTORS

- Introduction
- Scalar or dot product of two vectors-Geometrical interpretation
- Orthogonal Projections
- Properties of dot product
- Expression for Scalar(dot) product
- Angle between two vectors
- Geometrical Vector methods
- Vector equation of a plane -normal form
- Angle between two planes
- Vector product (cross product) of two vectors and properties
- Vector product in (i,j,k) system
- Vector Areas
- Scalar triple product
- Vector equation of a plane-different forms
- Skew lines
- Shortest distance- plane
- Condition for coplanarity etc.
- Vector triple product-results
- Solved Problems

#### UNIT VI: TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS UPTO TRANSFORMATIONS

- Introduction
- Trigonometric ratios - variation - Graphs and periodicity
- Trigonometric ratios of compound angles
- Trigonometric ratios of multiple and sub- multiple angles
- Sum and product transformation

#### UNIT VII: TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS

- Introduction
- General solutions of trigonometric equations
- Simple trigonometric equations-solutions

#### UNIT VIII: INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

- Introduction
- To reduce a trigonometric function into a bijective function
- Graphs of Inverse trigonometric functions
- Properties of inverse trigonometric functions

#### UNIT IX: HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS

- Introduction
- Definitions of Hyperbolic Function, graphs
- Definitions of inverse Hyperbolic Functions and graphs
- Additions formula of Hyperbolic Functions

#### UNIT X: PROPERTIES OF TRIANGLES

- Introduction
- Relation between the sides and angles of a triangle
- Sine, cosine and Tangent Rules- Projection Rules
- Half angle formulae and area of a triangle
- Incircle and excircles of a triangle

#### MATHEMATICS - I(B)

#### UNIT I: LOCUS

- Introduction
- Definition of Locus- IIIustrations
- Equation of Locus-Problems connected to it

#### UNIT II: TRANSFORMATION OF AXES

- Introduction
- Transformation of axes-Rules,derivations and illustratiorts
- Rotation of axes-Derivations-Illustrations

#### UNIT III: THE STRAIGHT LINE

- Introduction
- Revision of fundamental results
- Straight line- Normal form-Illustrations
- Straight line-Symmetric form
- Straight line-Reduction into various forms
- Intersection of two straight lines
- Family of straight lines-Concurrent lines
- Condition for Concurrent lines
- Angle between two lines
- Length of the perpendicular from a point to a line
- Distance between two parallel lines
- Concurrent lines- Properties related to a triangle

#### UNIT IV: PAIR OF STRAIGHT LINES

- Introduction
- Equations of a pair of lines passing through the origin Angle between a pair of lines
- Condition for perpendicular and coincident lines
- Bisectors of angles
- Pair of bisectors of angles
- Pair- of lines - Second degree general equation
- Conditions for parallel lines- Distance between them
- Point of intersection of pair of lines
- Homogenising a second degree equation with a first degree equation in x and y

#### UNIT V: THREE DIMENSIONAL COORDINATES

- Introduction
- Coordinates
- Section formula
- Solved Problems

#### UNIT VI: DIRECTION COSINES AND DIRECTION RATIOS

- Introduction
- Direction cosines
- Direction ratios

#### UNIT VII: THE PLANE

- Introduction
- Cartesian equation of a plane- Simple illustrations

#### UNIT VIII: LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

- Introduction
- Intervals and neighbourhoods
- Limits
- Standard limits
- Continuity

#### UNIT IX: DIFFERENTIATION

- Introduction
- Derivative of a function
- Elementary properties
- Trigonometric
- Inverse Trigonometric
- Hyperbolic
- Inverse Hyperbolic Functions- Derivatives
- Methods of differentiation
- Second Order Derivatives

#### UNIT X: APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES INTRODUCTION

- Introduction
- Errors and approximations
- Geometrical interpretation of the derivative
- Equations of tangent and normal to a curve
- Lengths of tangent, normal, subtangent and subnormal
- Angle between two curves and condition for orthogonality of curves
- Derivatives as a rate of change
- Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Valve Theorem
- Increasing and Decreasing functions
- Maxima and Minima

## MATHEMATICS-XII

#### MATHEMATICS - II(A)

#### UNIT I: COMPLEX NUMBERS

- Introduction
- Complex number as and ordered pair of real numbers Fundamental operations
- Representation of complex number in the form a+ib, Modules and Amplitude of a complex number- Illustrations
- Geometrical and Polar representation of complex number in Argand plane-Argand diagram

#### UNIT II: DE MOIVRE’S THEOREM

- Introduction
- De Moivre’s Theorem- Integral and Rational Indices
- nth roots of unity-Geographical Interpretations- Illustrations

#### UNIT III: QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS

- Introduction
- Quadratic Expressions
- Equations in one Variable
- Sign of quadratic expressions-Change in signs and Maximum and Minimum
- Quadratic Inequations

#### UNIT IV: THEORY OF EQUATIONS

- Introduction
- Relation between the roots and the coefficients in an Equation
- Solving an equation when two or more of its roots are connected by certain relations
- Equations with real coefficients - occurrence of complex roots in conjugate pairs and its consequences
- Transformation of equations - Reciprocal equations

#### UNIT V: PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

- Introduction
- Fundamental Principles of Counting - Linear and Circular permutations
- Permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time
- Permutations when repetitions are allowed
- Circular Permutations
- Permutations with Constant repetitions
- Combinations- Definitions and Certain Theorems

#### UNIT VI: BINOMIAL THEOREM

- Introduction
- Binomial Theorem for positive integral index
- Binomial Theorem for Rational Index
- Approximations using Binomial Theorem

#### UNIT VII: PARTIAL FRACTIONS

- Introduction
- Rational Fractions
- Partial Fractions of f(x)/g(x), when g(x) contains non-repeated linear factors
- Partial Fractions of f(x)/g(x), when g(x) contains repeated and I or non-repeated linear factors
- Partial Fractions of f(x)/g(x), when g(x) contains irreducible factors

#### UNIT VIII: MEASURE OF DISPERSION

- Introduction
- Range
- Mean Deviation
- Variance and Standard Deviation of ungrouped /grouped data
- Coefficient of Variation and analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances

#### UNIT IX: PROBABILITY

- Introduction
- Random Experiments and Events
- Classical definition of probability
- Axiomatic approach and addition theorem of probability
- Independent and Dependent events
- Conditional Probability
- Multiplication Theorem1 and Baye’s Theorem

#### UNIT X: RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

- Introduction
- Random Variables
- Theoretical discrete distributions Binomial and Poisson distributions

#### MATHEMATICS - II(B)

#### UNIT I: CIRCLE

- Introduction
- Equation of a circle, standard form, centre and radius
- Position of a point in the plane of a circle Definition of a tangent
- Position of a straight line in the plane of a circle condition for a line to be tangent
- Chord of contact and polar
- Relative Positions of two circles

#### UNIT II: SYSTEM OF CIRCLES

- Introduction
- Angle between two intersecting circles
- Radical axis of two circles

#### UNIT III: PARABOLA

#### UNIT IV: ELLIPSE

- Introduction,
- Equation of ellipse in standard form
- Parametric equations
- Equation of tangent and normal at a point on the ellipse

#### UNIT V: HYPERBOLA

- Introduction
- Equation of hyperbola in standard form Parametric equations
- Equation of Tangent and Normal at a point on the hyperbola

#### UNIT VI: INTEGRATION

- Introduction
- Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, standard forms and properties of integrals
- Method of substitution-Integration of algebraic, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions-Integration by parts
- Integration by the method of substitution-Integration of algebraic and trigonometric functions
- Integration by parts-Integration of exponential, logarithmic and inverse trigonometric functions
- Integration- Partial fractions method
- Reduction formulae

#### UNIT VII: DEFINITE INTEGRALS

- Introduction
- Define Integral as the limit of sum
- Interpretation of definite integral as an area
- The Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus
- Properties, Reduction Formulae
- Applications of definite integral to areas

#### UNIT VIII: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

- Introduction
- Formation of differential equations-Degree and order of an ordinary differential Equation
- Solving Differential Equations
- Variables separable method
- Homogenous Differential Equation
- Non-Homogeneous Different Equations
- Linear Differential Equations

## BIOLOGY-XI

#### BOTANY

#### UNIT I: DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD

- The Living World
- Biological Classification
- Science of Plants - Botany
- Plant Kingdom

#### UNIT II: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS –MORPHOLOGY

- Morphology of Flowering Plants

#### UNIT III: REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS

- Mode of Reproduction
- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering plants

#### UNIT IV: PLANT SYSTEMATIC

- Texonomy of Angiosperms

#### UNIT V: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

- The Unit of Life
- Biomolecules
- Cell Cycle and Cell Division

#### UNIT VI: INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF PLANTS

- Histology and Anatomy of Flowering Plants

#### UNIT VII: PLANT ECOLOGY

- Ecological Adaptation
- Succession and Ecological Services.

#### ZOOLOGY

#### UNIT I: DIVERSITY OF LIVING WORLD

- What is Life?
- Nature
- Scope and Meaning of Zoology
- Branches of Zoology
- Need for Classification
- Biological Classification
- Levels and Hierarchy of Classification
- Nomenclature
- Species Concept
- Kingdom: Animalia
- Biodiversity

#### UNIT II: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS

- Levels of Organisation
- Importance of Symmetry
- Coelom
- Animal Tissues

#### UNIT III: ANIMAL DIVERSITY - I (INVERTEBRATE PHYLA)

- Phylum - Porifera
- Phylum - Cnidaria
- Phylum - Ctenophora
- Phylum - Platyhelminthes
- Phylum - nematode
- Phylum - Annelida
- Phylum - Arthropoda
- Phylum - Mollusca
- Phylum - Echinodermata
- Phylum - Hemichordata

#### UNIT IV: ANIMAL DIVERSITY - II (CHORDATA PHYLUM )

- Phylum-Chordata
- Subphylum- Urochordata or Tunicata
- Subphylum-Cephalochordata
- Subphylum-Vertebrata/Craniata
- Super Class: Agnatha
- Super Class : Gnathostomata
- Terapoda

#### UNIT V: LOCOMOTION AND REPRODUCTION

- Locomotion in Protozoa
- Flagellar and Ciliary movement
- Asexual Reproduction
- Sexual Reproduction

#### UNIT VI: BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE

- Parasitism and parasitic adaptations
- Health and Disease
- Brief Account of some other Diseases
- Tobacco, Drugs and Alcohol abuse (TDA Abuse)

#### UNIT VII: PERIPLANETA AMERICANA (COCKROACH)

- Habitat and Habits
- External Features (Morphology)
- Locomotion, Digestive system
- Circulatory System
- Respiratory System
- Excretory System
- Nervous System and Sense organs
- Reproductive System

#### UNIT VIII: ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

- Organisms and Environment, Ecosystem - Elementary Aspects
- Population Interactions
- Ecosystems and Their Components
- Food Chains
- Food Web
- Productivity and Energy Flo
- Nutrient Cycles
- Population
- Environmental Issues

## BIOLOGY-XII

#### BOTANY

#### UNIT I: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - I

- Transport in Plants
- Mineral Nutrition
- Enzymes
- Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
- Respiration in Plants
- Plant Growth and Development

#### UNIT II: MICROBIOLOGY

- Bacteria
- Viruses

#### UNIT III: GENETICS

- Principles of Inheritance and Variation

#### UNIT IV: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

- Molecular Basis of Inheritance

#### UNIT V: BIOTECHNOLOGY

- Biotechnology Principles and Process
- Biotechnology and it’s applications

#### UNIT VI: PLANTS, MICROBES AND HUMAN WELFARE

- Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
- Microbes in Human Welfare

#### ZOOLOGY

#### UNIT I: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - I

- Digestion and Absorption
- Breathing and Exchange of Gases

#### UNIT II: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - II

- Body Fluids and Circulation
- Excretory Products and their Elimination

#### UNIT III: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - III

- Musculo - Skeletal System
- Neuronal Control and Coordination

#### UNIT IV: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - IV

- Endocrine System and Chemical Coordination
- Immune System

#### UNIT V: HUMAN REPRODUCTION

- Human Reproductive System
- Reproductive Health

#### UNIT VI: GENETICS

- Introduction to Genetics
- Mendelian Genetics
- Non-Mendelian Inheritance
- Human Genetics
- Sex-Linked Inheritance
- Molecular Genetics

#### UNIT VII: ORGANIC EVOLUTION

- Introduction to Evolution
- Theories of Evolution
- Mechanisms of Evolution
- Evidence for Evolution
- Speciation
- Evolutionary Development
- Human Evolution

#### UNIT VIII: APPLIED BIOLOGY

- Introduction to Applied Biology
- Medical and Health Applications
- Agriculture and Food Technology
- Biotechnology
- Environmental Management
- Forensic Biology
- Industrial Applications