Notes from Toppers
Detailed Notes from Toppers: JEE Main & Advanced  Vectors
1. Basic Vector Concepts:

Definition of a vector: A vector is a mathematical object that has both magnitude (size) and direction. It is represented geometrically as a directed line segment. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 12, Vector Algebra)

Magnitude and direction of a vector: The magnitude of a vector is its length or size, while its direction is the angle it makes with a reference direction. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 12, Vector Algebra)

Vector addition and subtraction: Vector addition is performed by placing the tail of one vector at the head of another, and the resultant vector is the vector from the tail of the first vector to the head of the second. Vector subtraction is defined as the addition of the vector to be subtracted, negated. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 12, Vector Algebra)

Multiplication of a vector by a scalar: When a vector is multiplied by a scalar (a real number), the magnitude of the vector is multiplied by the scalar, and the direction remains the same or reverses if the scalar is negative. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 12, Vector Algebra)

Properties of addition and multiplication of vectors: Vector addition and multiplication by a scalar follow the associative, commutative, and distributive laws, similar to real numbers. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 12, Vector Algebra)

Unit vectors: A unit vector is a vector with magnitude 1. It is often used to represent directions without considering the magnitude. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 12, Vector Algebra)
2. Dot Product:

Definition of the dot product: The dot product of two vectors is a scalar quantity that represents the magnitude of the projection of one vector onto the other. It is calculated by multiplying the magnitudes of the two vectors and the cosine of the angle between them. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)

Properties of the dot product: The dot product is commutative (i.e., A.B = B.A), distributive over vector addition, and obeys the scalar multiplication law. The dot product of two perpendicular vectors is zero. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)

Applications of the dot product: The dot product is used to find the angle between two vectors, calculate the work done by a force, determine whether vectors are perpendicular, and solve various physics and geometry problems. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)
3. Cross Product:

Definition of the cross product: The cross product of two vectors is a vector that is perpendicular to both input vectors. It is calculated by multiplying the magnitudes of the two vectors and the sine of the angle between them, along with a unit vector perpendicular to both. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)

Properties of the cross product: The cross product is anticommutative (i.e., A × B = B × A), distributive over vector addition, and obeys the scalar multiplication law. The cross product of two parallel vectors is zero. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)

Applications of the cross product: The cross product is used to find the area of a parallelogram, calculate the torque experienced by an object, determine the direction of a force, and solve various physics and geometry problems. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)
4. Scalar Triple Product:

Definition of the scalar triple product: The scalar triple product of three vectors is a scalar quantity that represents the volume of a parallelepiped formed by the three vectors. It is calculated by taking the dot product of one vector with the cross product of the other two vectors. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)

Properties of the scalar triple product: The scalar triple product is cyclic, meaning that it changes sign if the order of the vectors is changed. It also obeys the distributive and scalar multiplication laws. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)

Applications of the scalar triple product: The scalar triple product is used to find the volume of a parallelepiped, determine whether three vectors are coplanar, and solve various geometry problems. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 10, Vector Algebra)
5. Vector Equations:

Equation of a line in vector form: The vector equation of a line passing through a point (x1, y1, z1) and parallel to the vector a = <a1, a2, a3> is given by r = (x1, y1, z1) + t<a1, a2, a3>, where t is a scalar parameter. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 11, Three Dimensional Geometry)

Equation of a plane in vector form: The vector equation of a plane passing through a point (x0, y0, z0) and having normal vector n = <a, b, c> is given by a(x  x0) + b(y  y0) + c(z  z0) = 0. (Reference: NCERT Class 12, Chapter 11, Three Dimensional Geometry)
6. Applications in Physics:
Motion in a straight line: Vectors are used to describe displacement, velocity, and acceleration of an object moving in a straight line. Equations of motion and graphical analysis of motion can be derived using vector concepts. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 3, Motion in a Straight Line)
Projectile motion: Vectors help analyze the motion of projectiles, considering both the horizontal and vertical components of velocity and displacement. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 4, Projectile Motion)
Circular motion: Vectors are used to describe the position, velocity, and acceleration of an object moving in a circular path. Angular displacement, velocity, and acceleration are important concepts in circular motion. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 5, Circular Motion)
Rotational motion: Vectors are crucial for understanding rotational motion, including torque, angular momentum, and their relationships with linear quantities. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 7, Rotational Motion)
Work, energy, and power: Vectors play a vital role in defining and calculating work done by forces, potential energy, kinetic energy, and power. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 6, Work, Energy and Power)
Linear momentum and collisions: Vectors are used to analyze collisions between objects, considering the conservation of linear momentum and the impulsemomentum theorem. (Reference: NCERT Class 11, Chapter 8, Linear Momentum and Collisions)