### Notes from Toppers

## Chemical Equilibrium (JEE)

**1. Basic Concepts of Chemical Equilibrium**

- Definition of chemical equilibrium and the concept of dynamic equilibrium. (NCERT Class 11, Chapter 4, Page 133)
- Factors affecting chemical equilibrium: temperature, pressure, and concentration. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Page 213)

**2. Equilibrium Constants**

- Understanding equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Pages 213-214)
- Calculation of equilibrium constants from reaction stoichiometry. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Pages 214-215)
- Relationship between equilibrium constants and the extent of reaction. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Pages 216-217)

**3. Le Chatelier’s Principle**

- Description of Le Chatelier’s principle and its application in analyzing the effects of changes in concentration, temperature, and pressure on equilibrium systems. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Pages 219-220)
- Predicting the direction of shift in equilibrium in response to various changes. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Pages 220-221)

**4. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria**

- Types of equilibria: homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Pages 217-218)
- Examples of homogeneous (gas-phase reactions) and heterogeneous (solid-liquid or liquid-liquid reactions) equilibria. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Pages 218-219)

**5. Applications of Chemical Equilibrium**

- Predicting the feasibility and direction of chemical reactions. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Page 221)
- Calculating equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Pages 222-223)
- Industrial applications of chemical equilibrium, such as the Haber process and the Contact process. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 4, Page 224)

**6. Ionic Equilibria**

- Acid-base equilibria and the concept of pH. (NCERT Class 11, Chapter 8, Pages 232-233)
- Solubility equilibria and the solubility product constant (Ksp). (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 9, Pages 293-295)
- Common-ion effect and its impact on solubility and ionization. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 9, Page 295)
- Buffer solutions and their role in maintaining pH. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 9, Pages 295-297)

**7. Redox Equilibria**

- Understanding redox reactions and electrochemical cells. (NCERT Class 11, Chapter 3, Page 97)
- Nernst equation and its application in determining cell potential. (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 3, Pages 111-112)
- Thermodynamic parameters for redox reactions: standard reduction potentials and the electromotive force (EMF). (NCERT Class 12, Chapter 3, Pages 112-113)