आईसीएआर एआईईईए (यूजी) पाठ्यक्रम
PHYSICS
UNIT I: ELECTROSTATICS
 Electric charges and their conservation
 Coulomb’s law forces between two point charges
 Forces between multiple charges
 superposition principle and continuous charge distribution
 Electric field
 Electric field due to a point charge
 Electric field lines
 Electric dipole
 Electric field due to a dipole
 Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field
 Electric flux
 Statement of Gauss’s theorem & Its applications to find field due to infnitely long straight wire
 Uniformly charged infinite plane sheet
 Uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
 Electric potential
 Potential difference
 Electric potential due to a point charge
 A dipole and system of charges
 Equipotential surfaces
 Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges
 electric dipole in an electrostatic field
 Conductors and insulators
 Free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
 Dielectrics and electric polarization
 Capacitors and capacitances
 Combination of capacitors in series and parallel
 Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates
 Energy stored in a capacitor
 Van de Graaff generator.
UNIT II: CURRENT ELECTRICITY
 Electric current
 Flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor
 Drift velocity and Mobility and their relation with electric current
 Ohm’s law
 Electrical resistance
 V  I characteristics (linear and nonlinear)
 Electrical energy and power
 Electrical resistivity and conductivity
 Carbon resistors
 Colour code for carbon resistors
 Series and parallel combinations of resistors
 Temperature dependence of resistance
 Internal resistance of a cell
 Potential difference and emf of a cell
 A combination of cells in series and parallel
 Kirchoff’s laws and simple applications
 Wheatstone bridge
 Metre Bridge
 Potentiometer  principle and its applications to measure Potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells
 Measurement of internal resistance of a cell
UNIT III: MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM
 Concept of magnetic field
 Oersted’s experiment
 Biot  Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop
 Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids
 Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields
 Cyclotron
 Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field
 The force between two parallel currents carrying conductors  definition of ampere
 Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
 moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity
 conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
 Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
 Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.
 Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis
 Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field
 Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid
 Magnetic field lines
 Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements
 Para, dia and ferromagnetic substances, with examples
 Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths
 Permanent magnets
UNIT IV: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS
 Electromagnetic induction
 Faraday’s law
 Induced emf and current
 Lenz’s Law
 Eddy currents
 Self and mutual inductance
 Alternating currents
 Peak and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage
 Reactance and impedance
 LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only)
 LCR series circuit
 Resonance
 Power in AC circuits
 Wattless current
 AC generator and
 Transformer
UNIT V: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
 Need for Displacement current
 Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only)
 Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves
 Electromagnetic spectrum(radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet. Xrays. Gamma rays)
 Including elementary facts about their uses
UNIT VI: OPTICS
 Reflection of light
 Spherical mirrors
 Mirror formula
 Refraction of light
 Total internal reflection and its applications
 Optical fibres
 Refraction at spherical surfaces
 Lenses
 Thin lens formula
 Lens maker formula
 Magnification
 Power of a Lens
 combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror
 Refraction of light through a prism
 Scattering of light  blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset
 Optical instruments: Human eye
 Optical instruments: image formation and accommodation
 Optical instruments: correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses
 Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting ) and their magnifying powers
 Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens’ principle
 Reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts.
 Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle
 Interference
 Young’s doubleslit experiment and expression for fringe width
 Coherent sources and
 Sustained interference of light
 Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum
 Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes
 Polarization
 Planepolarized light
 Brewster’s law
 Uses of planepolarized light and Polaroid
UNIT VII: DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION
 Dual nature of radiation
 Photoelectric effect
 Hertz and Lenard’s observations
 Einstein’s photoelectric equationparticle nature of light
 Matter waveswave nature of particle
 De Broglie relation
 DavissonGermer experiment(experimental details should be omitted; only the conclusion should be explained.)
UNIT VIII: ATOMS & NUCLEI
 Alphaparticle scattering experiment
 Rutherford’s model of atom
 Bohr model
 Energy level’s
 Hydrogen spectrum
 Composition and size of nucleus
 Atomic masses
 Isotopes
 Isobars
 Isotones
 Radioactivity, alpha,beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties
 Radioactive decay law
 Massenergy relation
 Mass defect
 Binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number
 Nuclear fission
 Nuclear fusion
UNIT IX: ELECTRONIC DEVICES
 Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only)
 conductors
 insulators
 Semiconductors
 Semiconductor diode: IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias
 Semiconductor diode: diode as a rectifier
 I  V characteristics of LED
 Photodiode
 Solar cell
 Zener diode
 Zener diode as a voltage regulator
 Junction transistor
 Transistor action
 Characteristics of a transistor
 Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator
 Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR) Transistor as a switch
UNIT X: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
 Elements of a communication system (block diagram only)
 Bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data)
 Bandwidth of transmission medium
 Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere
 Sky and space wave propagation
 Need for modulation
 Production and detection of an amplitudemodulated wave
CHEMISTRY
Unit I: Solid State
 Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular
 Classification of solids based on different binding forces: ionic
 Classification of solids based on different binding forces: covalent
 Classification of solids based on different binding forces: metallic solids
 Amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea)
 Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices
 Calculation of density of unit cell
 packing in solids
 voids
 Number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell
 Point defects
 Electrical and magnetic properties
 Band theory of metals
 conductors
 semiconductors and insulators and n and ptype semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions
 Types of solutions
 expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids
 the solubility of gases in liquids
 solid solutions
 colligative properties – the relative lowering of vapour pressure
 Raoult’s law
 elevation of B.P.
 depression of freezing point
 osmotic pressure
 determination of molecular masses using colligative properties
 abnormal molecular mass
 Vant Hoff factor.
Unit III: Electrochemistry
 Redox reactions
 conductance in electrolytic solutions
 specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration
 Kohlrausch’s Law
 electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea)
 dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells
 lead accumulator
 EMF of a cell
 standard electrode potential
 Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells.
 Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell
 fuel cells
 corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
 Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous)
 factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst
 order and molecularity of a reaction
 rate law and specific rate constant
 integrated rate equations
 halflife (only for zero and firstorder reactions)
 concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).
 Activationenergy
 Arrhenius equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
 Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption
 factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids
 catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous
 activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis
 colloidal state: the distinction between true solutions, colloids, and suspensions
 lyophilic
 lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids
 properties of colloids
 Tyndall effect
 Brownian movement
 electrophoresis
 coagulation
 emulsions – types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method, and refining

occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc, and iron.
Unit VII: pBlock Elements

Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties

nitrogen – preparation, properties, and uses

compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen ( structure only)

Phosphorousallotropic forms

compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties

dioxygen: preparation, properties, and uses

classification of oxides

ozone.

Sulphur – allotropic forms

compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties, and uses of sulphur dioxide

sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties

compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens(structures only).

Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
 General introduction
 electronic configuration
 occurrence and characteristics of transition metals
 general trends in properties of the firstrow transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.
 Preparation and properties of $K_2 Cr_2 O_7$ and $KMnO_4$
 Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
 Actinoids– Electronic configuration, oxidation states, and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds: Introduction

ligands

coordination number

colour

magnetic properties and shapes

IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds

bonding

Werner’s theory

VBT

CFT

isomerism (structural and stereo)

importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biologicalsystems).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of CX bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.

Haloarenes: Nature of CX bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).

Uses and environmental effects of– dichloromethane,trichloromethane,tetrachloromethane,iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
 Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only)
 identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols
 mechanism of dehydration, uses, with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
 Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
 Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids
 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, the reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes uses.
 Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary, and tertiary amines.
 Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
 Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions, and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), DL configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) : importance.

Proteins  Elementary idea of aamino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.

Hormones – Elementary idea (excluding structure).

Vitamins – Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
Unit XV: Polymers
 Classification – Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization.
 Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
 Biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

 Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

 Chemicalsin food– preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

 Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action
MATHEMATICS
UNIT I: SETS AND FUNCTIONS
Sets :
 Sets and their representatio
 Empty set
 Finite & Infinite sets
 Equal sets
 Subsets
 Subsets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations)
 Power set
 Universal set
 Venn diagrams
 Union and Intersection of sets
 Difference of sets
 Complement of a set
Relations & Functions:
 Ordered pairs
 Cartesian product of sets
 Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets
 Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R)
 Definition of relation
 Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations
 One to one and onto functions
 Composite functions
 Inverse of a function
 Binary operations
 Pictorial representation of a function
 Domain
 Codomain and range of a relation
 Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another
 Real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs
 Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions
Trigonometric Functions:
 Positive and negative angles.
 Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another
 Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle
 Truth of the identity sin2x + cos2x=1, for all x
 Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs
 Expressing sin (x+y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx&cosy
 Deducing the identities like the following:
 $\tan (x \pm y)=\frac{\tan x \pm \tan y}{1 \pm \tan x \tan y}, \cot (x \pm y)=\frac{\cot x \cot y \pm 1}{\cot y \pm \cot x}$
 $\cos x+\cos y=2 \cos \frac{x+y}{2} \cos \frac{xy}{2}$
 $\sin x\sin y=2 \cos \frac{x+y}{2} \sin \frac{xy}{2}$
 $\cos x\cos y=2 \sin \frac{x+y}{2} \sin \frac{xy}{2}$
 Identities related to sin2x, cos2x, tan2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x
 General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin è ?= sin á, cos è ?= cos á ?and tan è ?= tan á
Inverse Trigonometric Functions:
 Definition, range, domain, principal value branches
 Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions
 Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions
 Properties of triangles, including centroid, incentre, circumcentre and orthocentre, Solution of triangles
 Heights and Distances
Unit II: ALGEBRA
Principle of Mathematical Induction:
 Processes of the proof by induction
 Motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers
 The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications
Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations:
 Need for complex numbers, especially 1
 To be motivated by inability to solve every quadratic equation
 Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers
 Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers
 Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
 Solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system
Linear Inequalities:
 Linear inequalities
 Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line
 Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables
 Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables graphically
Permutations & Combinations:
 Fundamental principle of counting
 Factorial n. ( n!)
 Permutations and combinations,
 Derivation of formulae and their connections
 Simple applications
Binomial Theorem:
 History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices
 Pascal’s triangle
 General and middle term in binomial expansion
 Simple applications
Sequence and Series:
 Sequence and Series
 Arithmetic progression (A. P.) Arithmetic progression (A. P.)
 Arithmetic mean (A.M.)
 Geometric progression (G.P.)
 General term of a G.P.
 sum of $n$ terms of a G.P.
 Geometric mean (G.M.)
 Relation between A.M. and G.M.
 Sum to $n$ terms of the special series Ón, Ón2 and Ón³
Matrices:
 Concept
 Notation,
 Order
 Equality
 Types of matrices
 Zero matrix
 Transpose of a matrix,
 Symmetric and skew symmetric matrices
 Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices
 Simple properties of addition
 Multiplication and scalar multiplication
 Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of nonzero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2)
 Concept of elementary row and column operations
 Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists
Determinants:
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3x3 matrices)
 Properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and
 Applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle
 Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix
 Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples
 Solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix
Unit III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Straight Lines:
 Slope of a line and angle between two lines
 Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, pointslope form, slopeintercept form, twopoint form, intercepts form and normal form
 General equation of a line
 Distance of a point from a line
Conic Sections:
 Sections of a cone: circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point
 A straight line and pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section
 Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola
 Standard equation of a circle
Introduction to Threedimensional Geometry:
 Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions
 Coordinates of a point
 Distance between two points and section formula
Unit VI: CALCULUS
Limits and Derivatives:
 Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically
 Intuitive idea of limit
 Definition of derivative
 Relate it to slope of tangent of the curve
 Derivative of sum, difference
 Product and quotient of functions
 Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions
Continuity and Differentiability:
 Continuity and differentiability
 Derivative of composite functions
 Chain rule
 Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions
 Derivative of implicit function
 Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivative
 Logarithmic differentiation
 Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms
 Second order derivatives
 Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations
Applications of Derivatives:
 Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents & normals, approximation
 Maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool)
 Simple problems
Integrals:
 Integration as inverse process of differentiation
 Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts
 Only simple integrals of the type
$$\int \frac{d x}{x^{2} \pm a^{2}} \int \frac{d x}{\sqrt{x^{2} \pm a^{2}}} \int \frac{d x}{\sqrt{a^{2}x^{2}}} \int \frac{d x}{a x^{2}+b x+c} \int \frac{d x}{\sqrt{a x^{2}+b x+c}} \int \frac{(p x+q)}{a x^{2}+b x+c} d x$$
$$ \int \frac{(p x+q)}{\sqrt{a x^{2}+b x+c}} d x \int \sqrt{a^{2} \pm x^{2}} d x \text { and } \int \sqrt{x^{2}a^{2}} d x $$
to be evaluated
 Definite integrals as a limit of a sum
 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof)
 Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals
Applications of the Integrals:
 Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only)
 Area between the two above said curves
Differential Equations:
 Definition, order and degree
 General and particular solutions of a differential equation
 Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given
 Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables
 Homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree
 Solutions of linear differential equation of the type $: \frac{d y}{d x}+p y=q$, where $\mathrm{p}$ and $\mathrm{q}$ are functions of $x$
Unit V: VECTORS AND THREEDIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Vectors:
 Vectors and scalars
 Magnitude and direction of a vector
 Direction cosines/ratios of vectors
 Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors)
 Position vector of a point
 Negative of a vector
 Components of a vector
 Addition of vectors
 Multiplication of a vector by a scalar
 Position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio
 Scalar (dot) product of vectors
 Projection of a vector on a line
 Vector (cross) product of vectors
Threedimensional Geometry:
 Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points
 Cartesian and vector equation of a line
 Coplanar
 Skew lines
 Shortest distance between two lines
 Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes. (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane
Unit VI: Linear Programming
 Introduction
 Definition of related terminology such as constraints
 Objective function
 Optimization
 Different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems
 Mathematical formulation of L.P. problems
 Graphical method of solution for problems in two variables
 Feasible and infeasible regions
 Feasible and infeasible solutions
 Optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial constraints)
Unit VII: Mathematical Reasoning
 Mathematically acceptable statements
 Connecting words/ phrases consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics
 Validating the statements involving the connecting words
 Difference between contradiction
 Converse and contrapositive
Unit VIII: STATISTICS & PROBABILITY
Statistics:
 Measures of central tendency
 Mean, median and mode from ungrouped/grouped data
 Measures of dispersion, mean deviation
 Variance and standard deviation from ungrouped/grouped data
 Correlation, regression lines
Probability:
 Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation)
 Events: occurrence of events, ’not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events
 Exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events
 Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability
 Probability of an event
 Probability of ’not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events
 Multiplication theorem on probability
 Conditional probability, independent events, total probability
 Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution
 Mean and variance of stochastic variable
 Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution
Unit IX: STATICS
 Introduction
 Basic concepts and basic laws of mechanics
 Force
 Resultant of forces acting at a point
 Parallelogram law of forces
 Resolved parts of a force
 Equilibrium of a particle under three concurrent forces
 Triangle law of forces and its converse
 Lami’s theorem and its converse
 Two Parallel forces, like and unlike parallel forces, couple and its moment
Unit X: DYNAMICS
 Speed and velocity
 Average speed
 Instantaneous speed
 Acceleration and retardation
 Resultant of two velocities
 Motion of a particle along a line, moving with constant acceleration
 Motion under gravity
 Laws of motion
 Projectile motion
BIOLOGY
Unit I: Reproduction

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species

Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual, Asexual reproduction

Modes Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation

vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure

Development of male and female gametophytes

Pollination– types, agencies and examples

Outbreedings devices

PollenPistil interaction

Double fertilization

Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit

Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony

Significance ofseed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems

Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary

Gametogenesis spermatogenesis & oogenesis

Menstrual cycle

Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation

Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea)

Parturition(Elementaryidea)

Lactation (Elementaryidea).

Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)

Birth control Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)

Amniocentesis

Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, IUI, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea forgeneral awareness).
Unit II: Genetics and Evolution
Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance

Deviations from Mendelism – Incomplete dominance, Codominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy

Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance

Chromosome theory of inheritance

Chromosomes and genes;

SexdeterminationV–VInhumans,birds, honeybee

Link age and crossing overV

Sex linked inheritance Haemophilia, Colour blindness

Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia

Chromosomal disordersin humans

Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material

Structure of DNA and RNA

DNA packaging

DNA replication

Central dogma

Transcription, genetic code,translation

Gene expression and regulation – Lac Operon

Genome and human genome project

DNA fingerprinting.

Evolution: Origin of life

Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence)

Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution

Mechanism of evolution–Variation(Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection

Gene flow and genetic dirft

HardyWeinberg’s principle

Adaptive Radiation

Humanevolution.
Unit III: Biology and Human Welfare

Health and Disease: Pathogens

parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm)

Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines

Cancer, HIV and AIDs

Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification

Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing,industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as bio control agents and biofertilizers.
Unit IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications

Principles and process of Biotechnology:Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Application of Bio technology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, genetherapy

Genetically modified organisms Btcrops

Transgenic Animals

Bio safety issues– Biopiracy and patents.
Unit V: Ecology and environment

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche

Population and ecological adaptations

Population interactions– mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism

Population attributes– growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystems: Patterns, components

productivity and decomposition

Energy flow

Pyramids of number, biomass, energy

Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous)

Ecological succession

Ecological Services– Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygenrelease.

Biodiversityand its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity

Patterns of Biodiversity

Importance of Biodiversity

Loss of Biodiversity

Biodiversity conservation

Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biospherereserves, National parks and sanctuaries sacred groves, insitu & exsitu.

Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control

Water pollution and its control

Agrochemicals and their effects

Solid waste management

Radioactive waste management

Greenhouse effect and global warming

Ozone depletion

Deforestation

Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
AGRICULTURE
Unit I: AGROMETEOROLOGY, GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING, BIOCHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY
Agrometerology
Genetics & Plant Breeding
 Cell and its structure, cell divisionmitosis and meiosis and their significance
 Organisation of the genetic materials in chromosomes, DNA and RNA
 Mendel’s laws of inheritance Reasons for the success of Mendel in his experiments, Absence of linkage in Mendel’s experiments
 Quantitative inheritance, continuous and discontinuous variation in plants.
 Monogenic and polygenic
 Inheritance
 Role of Genetics in Plant breeding, self and crosspollinated crops, methods of breeding in field cropsintroduction, selection, hybridization, mutation and polyploidy, tissue and cell culture
 Plant Biotechnologydefinition and scope in crop production
Biochemistry
 PH and buffers
 Classification and nomenclature of carbohydrates
 Proteins
 Lipids
 Vitamins and enzymes
Microbiology
 Microbial cell structure
 Microorganisms Algae
 Bacteria
 Fungi
 Actinomycetes
 Protozoa and Viruses
 Role of microorganisms in respiration, fermentation and organic matter decomposition
Unit2: LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Scope and importance
 Importance of livestock in agriculture and industry
 White revolution in India
 Important breeds Indian and exotic
 Distribution of cows
 Buffaloes and poultry in India
Care and management
 Systems of cattle and poultry housing
 Principles of feeding, feeding practices
 Balanced rationdefinition and ingredients
 Management of calves, bullocks, pregnant and milch animals as well as chicks crockrels and layers, poultry
 Signs of sick animals
 Symptoms of common diseases in cattle and poultry, Rinderpest, black quarter, foot and mouth, mastitis and haemorrhagicsepticaemiacoccidiosis Fowl pox and Ranikhet disease, their prevention and control
Artificial Insemination
 Reproductive organs, collection, dilution and preservation of semen and artificial insemination, role of artificial insemination in cattle improvement.
Livestock Products
 Processing and marketing of milk and Milk products
Unit3: CROP PRODUCTION
Introduction
 Targets and achievements in foodgrain production in India since independence and its future projections
 Sustainable crop production
 Commercialization of agriculture and its scope in India
 Classification of field crops based on their utilitycereals, pulses, oils seeds, fibre, sugar and forage crops
Soil, Soil fertility, Fertilizers and Manures
 Soil, soil pH, Soil texture, soil structure, soil organisms, soil tilth, soil fertility and soil health
 Essential plant nutrients, their functions and deficiency symptoms
 Soil types of India and their characteristics
 Organic manure, common fertilizers including straight, complex, fertilizer mixtures and biofertilizers integrated nutrient management system
Irrigation and Drainage
 Sources of irrigation (rain, canals, tanks, rivers, wells, tubewells)
 Scheduling of irrigation based on critical stages of growth, time interval, soil moisture content and weather parameters
 Water requirement of crops
 Methods of irrigation and drainage
 Watershed management
Weed Control
 Principles of weed control, methods of weed control (cultural, mechanical, chemical, biological and Integrated weed management)
Crops
 Seed bed preparation, seed treatment
 Time and method of sowing/planting, seed rate
 Dose, method and time of fertilizer application
 Irrigation
 Interculture and weed control
 Common pests and diseases
 Caused by bacteria
 Fungi virus and nematode and their control
 Integrated pest management
 Harvesting
 Threshing
 Post harvest technology: storage, processing and marketing of major field cropsRice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, groundnut, mustard, pigeonpea, gram, sugarcane, cotton and berseem
Unit4: HORTICULTURE
 Importance of fruits and vegetables in human diet, Crop diversification & processing Industry
 Orchardlocation and layout, ornamental gardening and kitchen garden
 Planting system, training, pruning, intercropping, protection from frost and sunburn
 Trees, shrubs, climbers, annuals, perennialsdefinition and examples
 Propagation by seed, cutting, budding, layering and grafting
 Cultivation practices, processing and marketing of: i. Fruits  mango, papaya, banana, guava, citrus, grapes ii. Vegetables  Radish, carrot, potato, onion, cauliflower, brinjal, tomato, spinach and cabbage iii. Flowers  Gladiolus, canna, chrysanthemums, roses and marigold
 Principles and methods of fruit and vegetable preservation
 Preparation of jellies, jams, ketchup, chips and their packing