### Series And Parallel Combinations Of Cells Current And Electricity

**Concepts to Remember on Series and Parallel Combinations of Cells:**

**Electric circuit:**A closed loop or path through which electric current can flow.**Cell:**A device that converts chemical energy directly into electrical energy.**Difference between series and parallel circuits:****Series circuit:**Components are connected in a single pathway.**Parallel circuit:**Components are connected along multiple pathways.

**Potential difference (voltage):**The difference in electric potential between two points.**Current:**The flow of electric charges through a conductor.**Resistance:**Property of a material that opposes the flow of electric current.**Ohm’s law:**Mathematical relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.**Kirchhoff’s current law:**The total current entering a junction is equal to the total current leaving that junction.**Kirchhoff’s voltage law:**The sum of the voltages around any closed loop in a circuit must equal zero.**Types of cells:****Primary cells:**Non-rechargeable cells, e.g., zinc-carbon battery.**Secondary cells (rechargeable batteries):**Rechargeable cells, e.g., lead-acid battery, lithium-ion battery.

**Internal resistance:**Resistance within a cell that opposes the flow of current.**Electromotive force (emf) of a cell:**Energy per unit charge supplied by a cell.**Terminal potential difference:**Voltage across the terminals of a cell.**Combinations of cells:**Connecting cells together to obtain desired voltage and/or current.**Advantages and disadvantages:****Series combinations:**- Advantage: Higher voltage.
- Disadvantage: Reduced current, one open cell breaks the circuit.

**Parallel combinations:**- Advantage: Higher current.
- Disadvantage: Lower voltage, one open cell does not affect the circuit.