### Problem Solving Session Structure Of Atom B

**Problem solving session**

**-Dimensional Analysis:** Use units and dimensions to check the consistency and correctness of equations. Look for canceling units and dimensionless quantities.

**-Approximations:** Identify the key factors influencing a situation and make simplifying assumptions to obtain approximate solutions or insights.

**-Order of magnitude:** Estimate the scale or range of values of a quantity by considering powers of ten.

**-Logarithm:** Understand the concept of exponents and powers and use logarithmic scales to simplify complex calculations involving large numbers or wide ranges.

**-Limits and Derivatives:** Focus on understanding the behavior of functions as they approach certain points or values, and grasp the notion of derivatives as instantaneous rates of change.

**Structure of atom -B**

**-Bohr’s model of an atom:** Visualize the atom as a nucleus surrounded by electrons orbiting in fixed circular paths or shells, with quantized energy levels.

**-Quantum numbers:** Comprehend the four quantum numbers (principal, azimuthal, magnetic, and spin) that describe the properties and behavior of electrons in an atom.

**-Shapes of orbitals:** Associate quantum numbers with the shapes and orientations of atomic orbitals, such as s, p, d, and f orbitals.

**-Aufbau principle:** Understand the sequence in which electrons fill orbitals based on their increasing energy levels, starting with the lowest energy levels.

**-Pauli’s exclusion principle:** Grasp the concept that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers, implying unique identities for each electron.

**-Hund’s rule:** Recognize that electrons pair with their spins aligned in the same direction (parallel spins) within an orbital before occupying a new orbital.

**-Electronic configurations of elements:** Determine the distribution of electrons in the orbitals of elements up to atomic number 36, using quantum numbers and the Aufbau principle.

**-Periodic properties of elements:** Study how atomic properties, such as atomic radius, ionic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, and valency, vary periodically across the periodic table.

**-Chemical bonding:** Comprehend the different types of chemical bonds (ionic, covalent, coordinate covalent, metallic, and hydrogen bonding) and the underlying forces and interactions that hold atoms together.

**-Molecular structure:** Visualize the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in molecules, using Lewis structures and VSEPR theory, and understand the concept of bond angles and molecular geometry.

**-Polarity of bonds and molecules:** Determine the polarity of covalent bonds and molecules based on electronegativity differences, identifying partial charges and dipole moments.

**-Hybridization of orbitals:** Understand how atomic orbitals can combine (hybridize) to form new orbitals with specific shapes and orientations, influencing molecular geometry and bond properties.