Probability
Concepts to Remember in Probability for JEE and CBSE Exams

Basic Concepts:
 Sample space: The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment.
 Events: A subset of the sample space.
 Equally likely events: Events that have the same probability of occurring.

Conditional Probability:
 Conditional probability: The probability of an event occurring given that another event has already occurred.
 Bayes’ theorem: A formula for calculating conditional probabilities.

Random Variables:
 Random variable: A function that assigns a numerical value to each outcome of an experiment.
 Probability mass function: A function that gives the probability of each possible value of a random variable.
 Cumulative distribution function: A function that gives the probability that a random variable takes on a value less than or equal to a given value.

Binomial Distribution:
 Binomial distribution: A discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/no experiments, each of which yields success with probability p.
 Mean and variance of binomial distribution: $$ E(X)=np, V(X)=npq $$ Where: $$ n = \text{Number of independent experiments}, p= \text{Probability of success in each experiment}, q=\text{Probability of failure in each experiment}$$

Normal Distribution:
 Normal distribution: A continuous probability distribution that is symmetric about its mean, with the tails of the distribution extending to infinity.
 Standard normal distribution: A normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
 Mean and variance of normal distribution: $$ E(X)=\mu, V(X)=\sigma^2$$ Where: $$ \mu = \text{Mean of the distribution}, \sigma=\text{Standard deviation}$$

Poisson Distribution:
 Poisson distribution: A discrete probability distribution that gives the number of events that occur within a fixed interval of time or space.
 Mean and variance of Poisson distribution: $$ E(X)=\lambda, V(X)=\lambda$$ Where: $$\lambda = \text{Mean number of events occurring per unit time or space}$$

Applications of Probability:
 Probability in genetics: Probability is used to study the inheritance of traits and to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes.
 Probability in queuing theory: Probability is used to study the behavior of queues and to determine the optimal number of servers needed to minimize the waiting time of customers.
 Probability in decisionmaking: Probability is used to make decisions under uncertainty by calculating the expected value of different options and choosing the option with the highest expected value.