Circuits With Resistance And Inductance
Concepts to remember for Circuits with Resistance and Inductance JEE:

Ohm’s law: Current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it, provided all physical conditions and temperature remain constant.

Resistors: Currentcarrying conductors that oppose the flow of electric current by converting electrical energy into heat energy. Power dissipated by a resistor is given by P = VI or P = I^2R or P = V^2/R.

Kirchhoff’s laws:
 Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL): The algebraic sum of currents entering a junction is equal to the algebraic sum of currents leaving that junction.
 Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL): The algebraic sum of the potential differences around a closed loop is equal to zero.

Power dissipation: The rate at which electrical energy is converted into heat energy in a resistor or inductor.

Resistors: P = VI, P = I^2R, or P = V^2/R.

Inductors: P = I^2R (where R is the resistance of the inductor coil).

Time constant (τ) of an RL circuit: The time it takes for the current in an RL circuit to reach (1  1/e) ≈ 63.2% of its final value when connected to a DC source. τ = L/R, where L is the inductance and R is the resistance.

Transient response of an RL circuit describes how the current and voltage in the circuit change over time when the circuit is switched on or off.

DC input: When an RL circuit is connected to a DC source, the current rises gradually from 0 to its final value, determined by the circuit’s resistance.

AC input: The current and voltage in an RL circuit connected to an AC source vary sinusoidally with the same frequency as the source but with a phase difference.

Inductive reactance (XL): The opposition offered by an inductor to the flow of alternating current. XL = 2πfL, where f is the frequency and L is the inductance.

Circuit impedance (Z): The total opposition offered by a circuit to the flow of alternating current. Z = √(R^2 + XL^2), where R is the resistance and XL is the inductive reactance.

Series and parallel resonant circuits: Circuits in which the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance cancel each other out at a specific frequency, causing the circuit to behave as a pure resistance.

Quality factor (Q) of a resonant circuit: A measure of how “peaky” a resonant circuit is. Q = ω₀L/R, where ω₀ is the resonant frequency, L is the inductance, and R is the resistance.

Mutual inductance (M): The phenomenon in which two or more inductors linked by a common magnetic field induce voltage in each other when the current in one inductor changes. M = μ₀n₁n₂A/d, where μ₀ is the permeability of free space, n₁ and n₂ are the number of turns in the first and second coils, respectively, A is the crosssectional area of the coils, and d is the distance between them.

Energy stored in an inductor (EL): The energy stored in an inductor when current flows through it. EL = ½LI², where L is the inductance and I is the current.
CBSE Board Exams:
 Ohm’s law: Same as for JEE, but with emphasis on simple applications.
 Kirchhoff’s laws: Same as for JEE, but with a focus on basic applications in solving simple circuit problems.
 Power dissipation: Power dissipation in resistors only, using P = VI or P = I^2R.
 Time constant of an RL circuit: Same as for JEE, but with a focus on qualitative understanding rather than mathematical calculations.
 Transient response of an RL circuit to DC input: Qualitative understanding of the gradual rise of current in an RL circuit when connected to a DC source, without detailed mathematical analysis.
 Inductive reactance: Basic understanding of inductive reactance as the opposition offered by an inductor to AC current.
 Series and parallel resonant circuits: Basic understanding of series and parallel resonance, without detailed mathematical analysis.
 Mutual inductance: Basic understanding of mutual inductance and its application in transformers.