Physics Reactance And Impedance
Reactance and Impedance
Reactance and impedance are two important concepts in electrical engineering. They are used to describe the behavior of electrical circuits when alternating current (AC) is flowing through them.
Reactance
Reactance is the opposition to the flow of alternating current caused by the storage and release of energy in an inductor or capacitor. It is measured in ohms and is represented by the symbol X.
There are two types of reactance:
 Inductive reactance is caused by the storage of energy in an inductor. It is proportional to the frequency of the AC current and the inductance of the inductor.
 Capacitive reactance is caused by the release of energy from a capacitor. It is inversely proportional to the frequency of the AC current and the capacitance of the capacitor.
Impedance
Impedance is the total opposition to the flow of alternating current in an electrical circuit. It is measured in ohms and is represented by the symbol Z.
Impedance is a combination of resistance and reactance. The resistance of a circuit is the opposition to the flow of current caused by the collision of electrons with atoms. The reactance of a circuit is the opposition to the flow of current caused by the storage and release of energy in inductors and capacitors.
The impedance of a circuit can be calculated using the following formula:
$$ Z = \sqrt{(R^2 + X^2)} $$
where:
 Z is the impedance in ohms
 R is the resistance in ohms
 X is the reactance in ohms
Example
Consider a circuit with a resistance of 10 ohms and an inductance of 1 henry. The frequency of the AC current flowing through the circuit is 60 Hz.
The inductive reactance of the circuit is:
$$ X = 2πfL = 2π(60 Hz)(1 H) = 377 ohms $$
The impedance of the circuit is:
$$ Z = \sqrt{(R^2 + X^2)} = \sqrt{(10^2 + 377^2)} = 377 ohms $$
This means that the circuit will oppose the flow of AC current with a force of 377 ohms.
Difference between Reactance and Impedance
Reactance and impedance are two important concepts in electrical engineering. They are both measures of the opposition to the flow of alternating current (AC), but they differ in their nature and effects.
Reactance
Reactance is the opposition to the flow of AC caused by the energy storage elements in a circuit, such as capacitors and inductors. It is measured in ohms and is represented by the symbol X.
There are two types of reactance:

Capacitive reactance (X_{C}): This is the reactance caused by a capacitor. It is given by the formula: $$X_C = \frac{1}{2\pi fC}$$ where:

f is the frequency of the AC current in hertz (Hz)

C is the capacitance in farads (F)

Inductive reactance (X_{L}): This is the reactance caused by an inductor. It is given by the formula: $$X_L = 2\pi fL$$ where:

f is the frequency of the AC current in hertz (Hz)

L is the inductance in henrys (H)
Impedance
Impedance is the total opposition to the flow of AC caused by both reactance and resistance. It is measured in ohms and is represented by the symbol Z.
Impedance is a complex quantity, meaning that it has both a magnitude and a phase angle. The magnitude of impedance is given by the formula: $$Z = \sqrt{R^2 + X^2}$$ where:
 R is the resistance of the circuit in ohms
 X is the reactance of the circuit in ohms
The phase angle of impedance is given by the formula: $$\theta = \tan^{1}\left(\frac{X}{R}\right)$$
Key Differences between Reactance and Impedance
The key differences between reactance and impedance are:
 Reactance is caused by energy storage elements, while impedance is caused by both energy storage elements and resistance.
 Reactance is a purely imaginary quantity, while impedance is a complex quantity.
 Reactance can be either positive or negative, while impedance is always positive.
 Reactance does not dissipate energy, while impedance does.
Reactance and impedance are two important concepts in electrical engineering. They are both measures of the opposition to the flow of AC, but they differ in their nature and effects. Reactance is caused by energy storage elements, while impedance is caused by both energy storage elements and resistance. Reactance is a purely imaginary quantity, while impedance is a complex quantity. Reactance can be either positive or negative, while impedance is always positive. Reactance does not dissipate energy, while impedance does.
Importance of Reactance and Inductance
Reactance and inductance are two important concepts in the study of alternating current (AC) circuits. They are both measures of the opposition to the flow of alternating current, but they have different effects on the circuit.
Reactance
Reactance is the opposition to the flow of alternating current caused by the storage of energy in a capacitor or inductor. Capacitors store energy in an electric field, while inductors store energy in a magnetic field. When an alternating current flows through a capacitor or inductor, the energy stored in the field increases and decreases as the current changes direction. This causes the current to lag behind the voltage in the circuit.
The reactance of a capacitor is given by the formula:
$$X_C = \frac{1}{2\pi fC}$$
where:
 $X_C$ is the reactance in ohms
 $f$ is the frequency of the alternating current in hertz
 $C$ is the capacitance in farads
The reactance of an inductor is given by the formula:
$$X_L = 2\pi fL$$
where:
 $X_L$ is the reactance in ohms
 $f$ is the frequency of the alternating current in hertz
 $L$ is the inductance in henrys
Inductance
Inductance is the property of a circuit that opposes changes in current flow. It is caused by the generation of a magnetic field when current flows through a conductor. The magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) in the conductor, which opposes the flow of current.
The inductance of a circuit is determined by the number of turns in the coil, the crosssectional area of the coil, and the length of the coil. The more turns in the coil, the greater the inductance. The larger the crosssectional area of the coil, the greater the inductance. The longer the coil, the greater the inductance.
Inductance is an important factor in AC circuits because it can cause the current to lag behind the voltage. This can lead to power losses and other problems. Inductance can be compensated for by using capacitors.
Importance of Reactance and Inductance
Reactance and inductance are both important concepts in the study of AC circuits. They play a vital role in determining the flow of current in a circuit. By understanding reactance and inductance, engineers can design circuits that operate efficiently and effectively.
Here are some of the specific applications of reactance and inductance:
 Capacitors are used to store energy in AC circuits. This energy can be used to power devices or to provide a backup power supply.
 Inductors are used to oppose changes in current flow. This can be used to protect sensitive devices from damage or to prevent power surges.
 Reactance and inductance can be used to tune circuits. This can be used to improve the performance of radios, televisions, and other electronic devices.
Reactance and inductance are essential concepts for understanding how AC circuits work. By understanding these concepts, engineers can design circuits that meet the specific needs of their applications.
Reactance and Impedance FAQs
What is reactance?
Reactance is the opposition to the flow of alternating current (AC) caused by the storage of energy in an inductor or capacitor. It is measured in ohms and is represented by the symbol X.
What is impedance?
Impedance is the total opposition to the flow of AC, including both resistance and reactance. It is measured in ohms and is represented by the symbol Z.
What is the difference between reactance and impedance?
Reactance is a type of impedance, but it is not the only type. Impedance also includes resistance, which is the opposition to the flow of AC caused by the conversion of electrical energy into heat.
What are the different types of reactance?
There are two types of reactance: inductive reactance and capacitive reactance.
 Inductive reactance is caused by the storage of energy in an inductor. It is proportional to the frequency of the AC current and the inductance of the inductor.
 Capacitive reactance is caused by the storage of energy in a capacitor. It is inversely proportional to the frequency of the AC current and the capacitance of the capacitor.
What are the effects of reactance and impedance on AC circuits?
Reactance and impedance can have a number of effects on AC circuits, including:
 Changing the phase angle of the current. Reactance can cause the current to lag or lead the voltage by a certain angle. This can affect the power factor of the circuit.
 Reducing the power factor. Reactance can reduce the power factor of a circuit, which is a measure of how efficiently the circuit is using power.
 Causing voltage drops. Reactance can cause voltage drops in a circuit, which can affect the performance of electrical devices.
How can reactance and impedance be controlled?
Reactance and impedance can be controlled by using inductors and capacitors. Inductors can be used to increase inductive reactance, while capacitors can be used to increase capacitive reactance.
Conclusion
Reactance and impedance are important concepts in AC circuits. They can affect the power factor, voltage drops, and performance of electrical devices. By understanding reactance and impedance, you can design AC circuits that operate efficiently and effectively.