Physics Mechanical Properties Of Fluids
Fluids at Rest
Fluids at rest are fluids that are not in motion. They are characterized by the fact that the pressure at any point in the fluid is the same in all directions. This is known as Pascal’s law.
Pressure in Fluids at Rest
The pressure in a fluid at rest is determined by the following factors:
 The density of the fluid
 The depth of the point in the fluid
 The acceleration due to gravity
The pressure in a fluid at rest increases with increasing depth. This is because the weight of the fluid above a given point increases with depth. The pressure in a fluid at rest also increases with increasing density. This is because the more dense the fluid, the more mass there is per unit volume, and therefore the greater the weight of the fluid above a given point.
Pressure and Density
Pressure
Pressure is the force exerted per unit area. It is a scalar quantity and is measured in pascals (Pa) in the International System of Units (SI).
$$P = \frac{F}{A}$$
Where:
 P is pressure in pascals (Pa)
 F is the force in newtons (N)
 A is the area in square meters (m²)
Density
Density is the mass per unit volume. It is a scalar quantity and is measured in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) in the SI.
$$\rho = \frac{m}{V}$$
Where:
 ρ is density in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³)
 m is the mass in kilograms (kg)
 V is the volume in cubic meters (m³)
Relationship between Pressure and Density
Pressure and density are related through the equation of state for an ideal gas:
$$PV = nRT$$
Where:
 P is the pressure in pascals (Pa)
 V is the volume in cubic meters (m³)
 n is the number of moles of gas
 R is the universal gas constant (8.314 J/mol·K)
 T is the temperature in kelvins (K)
For an ideal gas, the pressure is directly proportional to the density. This means that as the density of a gas increases, the pressure also increases.
Pascal’s Law
Pascal’s law states that pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container. This means that if you push on a piston in a cylinder, the pressure will be felt equally by all the fluid in the cylinder, and by the walls of the cylinder.
Mathematical Formula for Pascal’s Law
The mathematical formula for Pascal’s law is:
$$ P = F/A $$
where:
 P is the pressure in pascals (Pa)
 F is the force in newtons (N)
 A is the area in square meters (m$^2$)
This formula can be used to calculate the pressure in a fluid if you know the force and the area over which the force is applied.
Pascal’s law is a fundamental principle of fluid mechanics. It has many applications in everyday life, from hydraulic systems to water distribution systems to scuba diving. The mathematical formula for Pascal’s law can be used to calculate the pressure in a fluid if you know the force and the area over which the force is applied.
Hydraulic Machine Lift
A hydraulic machine lift is a mechanical device that uses hydraulic power to raise and lower heavy objects. It is commonly used in various industries, such as automotive, manufacturing, and construction, to lift and move heavy machinery, vehicles, and other objects.
Working Principle
The working principle of a hydraulic machine lift is based on Pascal’s law, which states that pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted equally throughout the fluid. In a hydraulic machine lift, this principle is utilized to generate the necessary force to lift heavy objects.
The lift consists of a hydraulic cylinder, a piston, a reservoir, and a pump. The hydraulic cylinder is a cylindrical chamber that houses the piston. The piston is a cylindrical plunger that moves inside the cylinder. The reservoir stores the hydraulic fluid, which is typically oil. The pump is responsible for pressurizing the hydraulic fluid.
When the pump is activated, it draws hydraulic fluid from the reservoir and pressurizes it. This pressurized fluid is then directed into the hydraulic cylinder. The pressure exerted by the fluid acts on the piston, causing it to move upwards. As the piston moves up, it raises the platform or lifting mechanism attached to it, along with the load being lifted.
Types of Hydraulic Machine Lifts
There are various types of hydraulic machine lifts, each designed for specific applications. Some common types include:

Singleacting hydraulic lift: This type of lift uses a single hydraulic cylinder to raise the load. When the pump is activated, the pressurized fluid enters the cylinder and pushes the piston upwards, lifting the load. When the pump is turned off, the load slowly descends due to gravity.

Doubleacting hydraulic lift: This type of lift uses two hydraulic cylinders, one for lifting and one for lowering the load. When the pump is activated, the pressurized fluid enters the lifting cylinder, causing the piston to move upwards and lift the load. When the pump is reversed, the pressurized fluid enters the lowering cylinder, causing the piston to move downwards and lower the load.

Scissor lift: This type of lift uses a series of interconnected scissorlike mechanisms to raise and lower the platform. Scissor lifts are often used in automotive workshops and warehouses for lifting vehicles and other heavy objects.

Boom lift: This type of lift consists of a hydraulic cylinder mounted on a boom arm. The boom arm can be extended and retracted, allowing the lift to reach high elevations. Boom lifts are commonly used in construction and maintenance industries.
Advantages of Hydraulic Machine Lifts
Hydraulic machine lifts offer several advantages over other lifting mechanisms:

High lifting capacity: Hydraulic lifts can generate immense force, allowing them to lift heavy loads with ease.

Smooth and precise operation: Hydraulic lifts provide smooth and controlled lifting and lowering of loads, reducing the risk of damage to the load or the surrounding area.

Versatility: Hydraulic lifts come in various types and sizes, making them suitable for a wide range of applications.

Reliability: Hydraulic lifts are generally reliable and require minimal maintenance.
Safety Considerations
When using hydraulic machine lifts, it is essential to prioritize safety. Some important safety considerations include:

Proper training: Only trained and authorized personnel should operate hydraulic lifts.

Regular maintenance: Hydraulic lifts should be regularly inspected and maintained to ensure their safe operation.

Load capacity: The load being lifted should never exceed the rated capacity of the lift.

Safe work practices: Always follow safe work practices, such as using proper lifting techniques and wearing appropriate safety gear.
By adhering to these safety guidelines, the risk of accidents and injuries can be minimized, ensuring the safe and efficient operation of hydraulic machine lifts.
Variation of Pressure with Height
Key Points
 Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing height.
 The decrease in pressure with height is due to the weight of the air above the point in question.
 The rate of decrease in pressure with height is known as the pressure gradient.
 The pressure gradient is greater at higher altitudes.
Detailed Explanation
The pressure of the atmosphere is caused by the weight of the air above the point in question. As you move higher in the atmosphere, there is less air above you, so the pressure decreases.
The rate of decrease in pressure with height is known as the pressure gradient. The pressure gradient is greater at higher altitudes because there is less air above each point.
The following table shows the pressure at different altitudes:
Altitude (m)  Pressure (kPa) 

0  101.3 
1000  89.9 
2000  79.5 
3000  70.1 
4000  61.7 
5000  54.1 
As you can see from the table, the pressure decreases by about 11.3 kPa for every 1000 meters of altitude. c
Archimedes Principle
Archimedes’ principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces. This principle is fundamental to understanding buoyancy, which is the ability of an object to float or sink in a fluid.
Key Points
 Archimedes’ principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces.
 Buoyancy is the ability of an object to float or sink in a fluid.
 The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
 The density of an object is the mass of the object per unit volume.
 Objects with a density less than that of the fluid will float, while objects with a density greater than that of the fluid will sink.
Applications
Archimedes’ principle has many applications, including:
 Determining the density of objects
 Designing ships and submarines
 Understanding how hot air balloons work
 Explaining why some objects float and others sink
Example
Consider a block of wood floating in a lake. The block of wood displaces a certain amount of water, and the weight of the water that is displaced is equal to the weight of the block of wood. This is why the block of wood floats.
If the block of wood were to be placed in a denser fluid, such as saltwater, it would displace less water and the weight of the water that is displaced would be less than the weight of the block of wood. This would cause the block of wood to sink.
Archimedes’ principle is a fundamental principle of physics that has many applications in everyday life. It is a powerful tool for understanding how objects interact with fluids.
Factors Affecting Floatation
The ability of an object to float depends on several factors:

Density: Density is the mass of an object per unit volume. Objects with a density less than that of the fluid will float, while objects with a density greater than that of the fluid will sink.

Volume: The volume of an object is the amount of space it occupies. The greater the volume of an object, the more fluid it displaces, and the greater the buoyant force it experiences.

Shape: The shape of an object can affect its ability to float. Objects with a streamlined shape, such as boats, experience less resistance from the fluid and can float more easily than objects with an irregular shape.
Applications of Floatation
The laws of floatation have numerous applications in various fields:

Shipbuilding: Ships float because their average density is less than that of water. The hull of a ship is designed to displace a large volume of water, creating a buoyant force that keeps the ship afloat.

Submarines: Submarines can submerge and surface by controlling their buoyancy. They use ballast tanks to adjust their density, allowing them to sink or rise in the water.

Buoyancy aids: Buoyancy aids, such as life jackets and inflatable rafts, help people stay afloat in water by increasing their buoyancy.

Hydrometers: Hydrometers are instruments used to measure the density of liquids. They work based on Archimedes’ principle, where the depth to which a hydrometer sinks in a liquid is inversely proportional to the liquid’s density.
The laws of floatation, based on Archimedes’ principle, provide a fundamental understanding of why objects float or sink. These principles have practical applications in various fields, including shipbuilding, submarine design, and the development of buoyancy aids and hydrometers.
Equation of Continuity
The equation of continuity is a fundamental principle in fluid mechanics that describes the conservation of mass. It states that the net mass flow rate into a control volume must equal the net mass flow rate out of the control volume, plus the rate of mass accumulation within the control volume.
Mathematical Formulation
The equation of continuity can be expressed mathematically as follows:
$$\frac{\partial \rho}{\partial t} + \nabla \cdot (\rho \mathbf{v}) = 0$$
where:
 $\rho$ is the density of the fluid
 $t$ is time
 $\mathbf{v}$ is the velocity vector of the fluid
 $\nabla \cdot$ is the divergence operator
Physical Interpretation
The equation of continuity can be interpreted as follows:
 The rate of change of mass within a control volume is equal to the net mass flow rate into the control volume.
 If the net mass flow rate into a control volume is greater than the net mass flow rate out of the control volume, then the mass within the control volume will increase.
 If the net mass flow rate into a control volume is less than the net mass flow rate out of the control volume, then the mass within the control volume will decrease.
Applications
The equation of continuity is used in a wide variety of applications, including:
 Fluid dynamics
 Heat transfer
 Mass transfer
 Chemical reactions
 Environmental modeling
Example
Consider a pipe with a constant crosssectional area $A$ and a fluid flowing through the pipe with a velocity $v$. The mass flow rate into the pipe is $\rho Av$ and the mass flow rate out of the pipe is also $\rho Av$. Therefore, the net mass flow rate into the pipe is zero and the mass within the pipe remains constant.
The equation of continuity is a fundamental principle in fluid mechanics that describes the conservation of mass. It is used in a wide variety of applications, including fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions, and environmental modeling.
Energy of a Fluid
Fluids, both liquids and gases, possess energy due to their motion and internal properties. Understanding the energy of fluids is crucial in various fields, including fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and engineering. This article explores the different forms of energy associated with fluids and their significance.
Internal Energy
The internal energy of a fluid is the energy associated with the random motion and interactions of its molecules. It is a measure of the microscopic energy within the fluid and depends on factors such as temperature, pressure, and molecular structure. The internal energy of a fluid can be increased by heating it, compressing it, or adding energy through chemical reactions.
Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a fluid due to its motion. It is directly proportional to the mass of the fluid and the square of its velocity. The kinetic energy of a fluid can be significant in highvelocity flows, such as in pipelines or jet engines.
Potential Energy
Potential energy is the energy possessed by a fluid due to its position or elevation relative to a reference point. In the case of liquids, potential energy is primarily associated with their height or depth. For gases, potential energy is related to their pressure and density. The potential energy of a fluid can be harnessed for various applications, such as hydroelectric power generation.
Total Energy
The total energy of a fluid is the sum of its internal energy, kinetic energy, and potential energy. It represents the total amount of energy contained within the fluid system. The conservation of energy principle states that the total energy of a closed fluid system remains constant, although it can be transferred or converted between different forms.
Bernoulli’s Theorem
Bernoulli’s theorem is a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics that describes the relationship between fluid velocity, pressure, and height. It states that as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases. This principle is essential for understanding many phenomena in fluid mechanics, such as lift on an airplane wing and the operation of a Venturi tube.
Assumptions of Bernoulli’s Theorem
Bernoulli’s theorem is based on the following assumptions:
 The fluid is incompressible, meaning its density does not change.
 The fluid is inviscid, meaning it has no viscosity.
 The flow is steady, meaning the velocity of the fluid does not change with time.
 The flow is irrotational, meaning the fluid does not rotate.
Equation of Bernoulli’s Theorem
The equation of Bernoulli’s theorem is:
$$ P + ½ρv² + ρgy = constant $$
where:
 P is the pressure of the fluid
 ρ is the density of the fluid
 v is the velocity of the fluid
 g is the acceleration due to gravity
 y is the height of the fluid
Bernoulli’s theorem is a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics that has many applications in engineering and science. It is a powerful tool for understanding the behavior of fluids and for designing devices that use fluids.
Coefficient of Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. It is defined as the ratio of the shear stress to the velocity gradient. In simpler terms, it is the thickness of a fluid. The higher the viscosity, the thicker the fluid.
Types of Viscosity
There are two types of viscosity:
 Dynamic viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to flow when it is subjected to a shear force. It is measured in poise (P) or pascalseconds (Pa·s).
 Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of dynamic viscosity to density. It is measured in stokes (St) or square meters per second (m²/s).
Factors Affecting Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is affected by several factors, including:
 Temperature: Viscosity decreases as temperature increases. This is because the molecules in a fluid move faster at higher temperatures, which makes it easier for them to flow past each other.
 Pressure: Viscosity increases as pressure increases. This is because the molecules in a fluid are more closely packed together at higher pressures, which makes it more difficult for them to flow past each other.
 Composition: The viscosity of a fluid is also affected by its composition. For example, the viscosity of water is lower than the viscosity of oil. This is because the molecules in water are smaller and more polar than the molecules in oil.
Viscosity is a fundamental property of fluids that has a wide range of applications. By understanding the factors that affect viscosity, we can better control and use fluids in our everyday lives.
Stoke’s Law
Stoke’s law describes the motion of a spherical particle in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. It states that the viscous drag force acting on a spherical particle is directly proportional to the radius of the particle, the viscosity of the fluid, and the terminal velocity of the particle.
Mathematical Formulation
The mathematical formulation of Stoke’s law is given by:
$$F_d = 6\pi\eta rv$$
where:
 $F_d$ is the viscous drag force acting on the particle
 $\eta$ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid
 $r$ is the radius of the particle
 $v$ is the terminal velocity of the particle
Torricelli’s Law
Torricelli’s Law, named after the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, describes the relationship between the velocity of a fluid flowing out of an opening in a container and the height of the fluid above the opening. It is a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics and has applications in various fields, including hydraulics, hydrology, and engineering.
Key Points:
 Torricelli’s Law states that the velocity of a fluid flowing out of an opening is proportional to the square root of the height of the fluid above the opening.
 The law can be expressed mathematically as:
$$ v = \sqrt{(2gh)} $$
Where:
 v represents the velocity of the fluid (in meters per second)
 g represents the acceleration due to gravity (approximately 9.8 m/s²)
 h represents the height of the fluid above the opening (in meters)
Poiseuille’s Equation
Poiseuille’s equation describes the pressure drop in a laminar flow of an incompressible fluid through a cylindrical pipe of constant crosssectional area. It is named after the French physician and physiologist Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille, who published it in 1840.
Equation
The Poiseuille equation is given by:
$$Q = \frac{\pi r^4 \Delta P}{8 \eta L}$$
where:
 $Q$ is the volumetric flow rate (m³/s)
 $r$ is the radius of the pipe (m)
 $\Delta P$ is the pressure drop across the pipe (Pa)
 $\eta$ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s)
 $L$ is the length of the pipe (m)
Reynold’s Number
Reynold’s number is a dimensionless quantity used in fluid mechanics to characterize the flow regime of a fluid. It is named after the Irish physicist Osborne Reynolds, who first proposed it in 1883.
Definition
The Reynolds number (Re) is defined as the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces acting on a fluid. It is given by the formula:
$$Re = \frac{\rho v D}{\mu}$$
where:
 $\rho$ is the density of the fluid (kg/m³)
 $v$ is the velocity of the fluid (m/s)
 $D$ is the characteristic length (m)
 $\mu$ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s)
Types of Fluid Flow
Fluid flow is the movement of fluids (liquids and gases). It can be classified into various types based on different characteristics such as velocity, viscosity, and flow regime. Here are some common types of fluid flow:
1. Laminar Flow
 Laminar flow is characterized by smooth, parallel layers of fluid moving at different velocities.
 The fluid particles move in straight lines, and there is no mixing between adjacent layers.
 Laminar flow occurs at low velocities and high viscosities.
 It is often observed in slowmoving fluids such as honey or oil.
2. Turbulent Flow
 Turbulent flow is characterized by chaotic, irregular fluid motion.
 The fluid particles move in random directions, and there is significant mixing between adjacent layers.
 Turbulent flow occurs at high velocities and low viscosities.
 It is often observed in fastmoving fluids such as water in a river or air in a storm.
3. Steady Flow
 Steady flow is characterized by constant fluid properties (velocity, pressure, density) at a given point over time.
 The flow conditions do not change with time.
 Steady flow can be either laminar or turbulent.
4. Unsteady Flow
 Unsteady flow is characterized by changing fluid properties (velocity, pressure, density) at a given point over time.
 The flow conditions vary with time.
 Unsteady flow can be either laminar or turbulent.
5. Compressible Flow
 Compressible flow is characterized by significant changes in fluid density due to pressure variations.
 The density of the fluid changes as it moves through the flow field.
 Compressible flow occurs at high velocities and low pressures.
 It is often observed in gases or liquids under highpressure conditions.
6. Incompressible Flow
 Incompressible flow is characterized by negligible changes in fluid density due to pressure variations.
 The density of the fluid remains constant throughout the flow field.
 Incompressible flow occurs at low velocities and high pressures.
 It is often observed in liquids or gases under lowpressure conditions.
7. Viscous Flow
 Viscous flow is characterized by the presence of friction between fluid particles and the surrounding surfaces.
 The viscosity of the fluid affects the flow behavior.
 Viscous flow occurs in fluids with high viscosities.
 It is often observed in thick fluids such as honey or oil.
8. Inviscid Flow
 Inviscid flow is characterized by the absence of friction between fluid particles and the surrounding surfaces.
 The viscosity of the fluid is negligible.
 Inviscid flow occurs in fluids with low viscosities.
 It is often observed in gases or liquids at high temperatures.
These are some of the common types of fluid flow. The type of flow that occurs in a particular situation depends on various factors such as fluid properties, flow velocity, and boundary conditions.
Tube of Flow
A tube of flow is a cylindrical region of fluid that is moving together in a uniform direction. The fluid velocity is constant throughout the tube, and the pressure is constant on any crosssection of the tube.
Tubes of flow are an important part of many fluid systems. They are used to transport fluids, transfer heat, and generate steam. The characteristics of a tube of flow, such as the velocity, pressure, and flow regime, are important factors to consider when designing a fluid system.
Surface Tension and Viscosity
Surface Tension
Surface tension is the tendency of a fluid to resist an external force that tends to increase its surface area. It is caused by the cohesive forces between the molecules of the fluid.
Factors Affecting Surface Tension
The surface tension of a fluid depends on several factors, including:
 Temperature: Surface tension decreases with increasing temperature. This is because the increased thermal energy causes the molecules to move more rapidly and break the cohesive forces between them.
 Impurities: Impurities can reduce the surface tension of a fluid by disrupting the cohesive forces between the molecules.
 Solutes: Solutes can increase or decrease the surface tension of a fluid, depending on their chemical structure.
Viscosity
Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to flow. It is caused by the frictional forces between the molecules of the fluid.
Factors Affecting Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid depends on several factors, including:
 Temperature: Viscosity decreases with increasing temperature. This is because the increased thermal energy causes the molecules to move more rapidly and overcome the frictional forces between them.
 Pressure: Viscosity increases with increasing pressure. This is because the increased pressure forces the molecules closer together, increasing the frictional forces between them.
 Solutes: Solutes can increase or decrease the viscosity of a fluid, depending on their chemical structure.