Surface Areas And Volume
Surface Areas and Volume
Surface Area and Volume
 Surface area is the total area of all the surfaces of a threedimensional object, while volume is the amount of space occupied by a threedimensional object.
 The surface area of a cube with side length s is 6s^2, while the volume of a cube with side length s is s^3.
 The surface area of a sphere with radius r is 4πr^2, while the volume of a sphere with radius r is 4/3πr^3.
 The surface area of a cylinder with radius r and height h is 2πrh + 2πr^2, while the volume of a cylinder with radius r and height h is πr^2h.
 The surface area of a cone with radius r and height h is πr√(r^2 + h^2) + πr^2, while the volume of a cone with radius r and height h is 1/3πr^2h.
What is Surface Area?
Surface Area
Surface area is the total area of the exposed surface of a threedimensional object. It is measured in square units, such as square centimeters (cm²) or square meters (m²).
The surface area of an object is important because it determines how much of the object is exposed to the environment. This can affect the object’s heat transfer, chemical reactions, and other physical processes.
For example, a large surface area allows for more heat transfer than a small surface area. This is why radiators have a large surface area, to help them dissipate heat.
The surface area of an object can be calculated using a variety of formulas, depending on the shape of the object.
Examples of Surface Area
 A cube with a side length of 1 cm has a surface area of 6 cm².
 A sphere with a radius of 1 cm has a surface area of 4π cm².
 A cylinder with a radius of 1 cm and a height of 2 cm has a surface area of 2π cm² + 2π cm² = 4π cm².
Applications of Surface Area
The surface area of an object is used in a variety of applications, including:
 Heat transfer: The surface area of an object determines how much heat it can transfer. This is important in the design of heating and cooling systems.
 Chemical reactions: The surface area of an object can affect the rate of chemical reactions. This is important in the design of chemical reactors.
 Fluid flow: The surface area of an object can affect the flow of fluids around it. This is important in the design of aircraft, ships, and other vehicles.
 Structural design: The surface area of an object can affect its structural strength. This is important in the design of buildings, bridges, and other structures.
By understanding the surface area of an object, engineers and designers can optimize its performance for a variety of applications.
What is Volume?
Volume is a measure of the amount of space occupied by a threedimensional object. It is often measured in cubic units, such as cubic centimeters (cm³), cubic meters (m³), or liters (L).
The volume of an object can be calculated by multiplying its length, width, and height. For example, if a rectangular prism has a length of 5 cm, a width of 3 cm, and a height of 2 cm, its volume would be 5 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm = 30 cm³.
The volume of an object can also be calculated using the formula for the volume of a sphere, which is 4/3 πr³, where r is the radius of the sphere. For example, if a sphere has a radius of 3 cm, its volume would be 4/3 π × 3 cm³ = 113.1 cm³.
Here are some examples of volumes of different objects:
 A sugar cube has a volume of about 1 cm³.
 A basketball has a volume of about 750 cm³.
 A car has a volume of about 5 m³.
 The Earth has a volume of about 1.08321 × 10¹² km³.
Volume is an important concept in many fields, such as physics, engineering, and architecture. It is used to calculate the amount of material needed to build an object, the amount of space an object will occupy, and the amount of force that an object will experience.
Surface Area and Volume Formulas
Surface Area and Volume Formulas
The surface area of a threedimensional object is the sum of the areas of all of its faces. The volume of a threedimensional object is the amount of space that it occupies.
Surface Area Formulas
The surface area of a rectangular prism is given by the formula:
$$SA = 2lw + 2lh + 2wh$$
where:
 l is the length of the prism
 w is the width of the prism
 h is the height of the prism
The surface area of a cylinder is given by the formula:
$$SA = 2\pi r^2 + 2\pi rh$$
where:
 r is the radius of the cylinder
 h is the height of the cylinder
The surface area of a sphere is given by the formula:
$$SA = 4\pi r^2$$
where:
 r is the radius of the sphere
Volume Formulas
The volume of a rectangular prism is given by the formula:
$$V = lwh$$
where:
 l is the length of the prism
 w is the width of the prism
 h is the height of the prism
The volume of a cylinder is given by the formula:
$$V = \pi r^2 h$$
where:
 r is the radius of the cylinder
 h is the height of the cylinder
The volume of a sphere is given by the formula:
$$V = \frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$$
where:
 r is the radius of the sphere
Examples
 The surface area of a cube with side length 5 cm is:
$$SA = 6(5^2) = 150 cm^2$$
 The volume of a cube with side length 5 cm is:
$$V = 5^3 = 125 cm^3$$
 The surface area of a cylinder with radius 3 cm and height 4 cm is:
$$SA = 2\pi (3^2) + 2\pi (3)(4) = 56\pi cm^2$$
 The volume of a cylinder with radius 3 cm and height 4 cm is:
$$V = \pi (3^2)(4) = 36\pi cm^3$$
 The surface area of a sphere with radius 2 cm is:
$$SA = 4\pi (2^2) = 16\pi cm^2$$
 The volume of a sphere with radius 2 cm is:
$$V = \frac{4}{3}\pi (2^3) = \frac{32}{3}\pi cm^3$$
Related Articles
Related Articles
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There are a few different ways that related articles can be generated. One common method is to use a content management system (CMS) that automatically generates related articles based on the tags or keywords that are associated with the article. Another method is to manually select related articles by a human editor.
The number of related articles that are displayed can vary from website to website. Some websites only display a few related articles, while others may display dozens. The number of related articles that are displayed is often determined by the amount of content that is available on the website.
Related articles can be a valuable resource for readers who are looking for more information on a topic. They can also help to keep readers engaged on a website by providing them with additional content to read.
Examples of Related Articles
Here are a few examples of related articles that might be displayed at the bottom of an article about the COVID19 pandemic:
 “How to protect yourself from COVID19”
 “Symptoms of COVID19”
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 “The latest news about COVID19”
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These related articles provide readers with more information on the COVID19 pandemic, and they can help readers to stay informed about the latest developments.
Benefits of Related Articles
There are a number of benefits to using related articles on a website. These benefits include:
 They can help readers to find more information on a topic that they are interested in.
 They can help to keep readers engaged on a website by providing them with additional content to read.
 They can help to improve the overall user experience of a website.
If you are running a news or information website, you should consider adding related articles to your website. They can be a valuable resource for your readers, and they can help to improve the overall user experience of your website.
Solved Examples
Solved Examples
Example 1: Solving a linear equation
Solve the equation 3x + 5 = 17.
Solution:

Subtract 5 from both sides of the equation: 3x + 5  5 = 17  5 3x = 12

Divide both sides of the equation by 3: 3x/3 = 12/3 x = 4
Example 2: Solving a quadratic equation
Solve the equation x^2  4x  5 = 0.
Solution:

Factor the lefthand side of the equation: x^2  4x  5 = (x  5)(x + 1)

Set each factor equal to zero: x  5 = 0 or x + 1 = 0

Solve each equation: x = 5 or x = 1
Example 3: Solving a system of linear equations
Solve the system of equations: 3x + 2y = 7 2x  y = 4
Solution:

Multiply the second equation by 2: 4x  2y = 8

Add the two equations: 7x = 15

Divide both sides of the equation by 7: x = 15/7

Substitute the value of x into one of the original equations to find y: 3(15/7) + 2y = 7 45/7 + 2y = 7 2y = 7  45/7 2y = (49  45)/7 2y = 4/7 y = 2/7
Example 4: Solving an inequality
Solve the inequality x + 3 < 7.
Solution:
 Subtract 3 from both sides of the inequality: x + 3  3 < 7  3 x < 4
Example 5: Solving an absolute value equation
Solve the equation x  3 = 5.
Solution:

Consider two cases: x  3 = 5 and x  3 = 5.

Solve each equation: x  3 = 5 x = 5 + 3 x = 8
x  3 = 5 x = 5 + 3 x = 2
Example 6: Solving a logarithmic equation
Solve the equation log(x + 2) = 3.
Solution:

Rewrite the equation in exponential form: x + 2 = 10^3 x + 2 = 1000

Subtract 2 from both sides of the equation: x + 2  2 = 1000  2 x = 998
Practice Questions on Surface Areas and Volumes
Practice Questions on Surface Areas and Volumes
1. A cube has a side length of 5 cm. Find the surface area and volume of the cube.
Solution:
The surface area of a cube is given by the formula:
$$SA = 6s^2$$
where s is the length of a side of the cube.
Substituting s = 5 cm into the formula, we get:
$$SA = 6(5 cm)^2 = 150 cm^2$$
The volume of a cube is given by the formula:
$$V = s^3$$
Substituting s = 5 cm into the formula, we get:
$$V = (5 cm)^3 = 125 cm^3$$
2. A rectangular prism has a length of 10 cm, a width of 5 cm, and a height of 3 cm. Find the surface area and volume of the rectangular prism.
Solution:
The surface area of a rectangular prism is given by the formula:
$$SA = 2lw + 2lh + 2wh$$
where l is the length, w is the width, and h is the height of the rectangular prism.
Substituting l = 10 cm, w = 5 cm, and h = 3 cm into the formula, we get:
$$SA = 2(10 cm)(5 cm) + 2(10 cm)(3 cm) + 2(5 cm)(3 cm) = 160 cm^2$$
The volume of a rectangular prism is given by the formula:
$$V = lwh$$
Substituting l = 10 cm, w = 5 cm, and h = 3 cm into the formula, we get:
$$V = (10 cm)(5 cm)(3 cm) = 150 cm^3$$
3. A cylinder has a radius of 4 cm and a height of 10 cm. Find the surface area and volume of the cylinder.
Solution:
The surface area of a cylinder is given by the formula:
$$SA = 2\pi r^2 + 2\pi rh$$
where r is the radius and h is the height of the cylinder.
Substituting r = 4 cm and h = 10 cm into the formula, we get:
$$SA = 2\pi (4 cm)^2 + 2\pi (4 cm)(10 cm) = 320\pi cm^2$$
The volume of a cylinder is given by the formula:
$$V = \pi r^2h$$
Substituting r = 4 cm and h = 10 cm into the formula, we get:
$$V = \pi (4 cm)^2(10 cm) = 502.65 cm^3$$
4. A cone has a radius of 5 cm and a height of 12 cm. Find the surface area and volume of the cone.
Solution:
The surface area of a cone is given by the formula:
$$SA = \pi r^2 + \pi rs$$
where r is the radius, h is the height, and s is the slant height of the cone.
The slant height of a cone is given by the formula:
$$s = \sqrt{r^2 + h^2}$$
Substituting r = 5 cm and h = 12 cm into the formula, we get:
$$s = \sqrt{(5 cm)^2 + (12 cm)^2} = 13 cm$$
Substituting r = 5 cm, h = 12 cm, and s = 13 cm into the formula for the surface area, we get:
$$SA = \pi (5 cm)^2 + \pi (5 cm)(13 cm) = 115\pi cm^2$$
The volume of a cone is given by the formula:
$$V = \frac{1}{3}\pi r^2h$$
Substituting r = 5 cm and h = 12 cm into the formula, we get:
$$V = \frac{1}{3}\pi (5 cm)^2(12 cm) = 100\pi cm^3$$
5. A sphere has a radius of 6 cm. Find the surface area and volume of the sphere.
Solution:
The surface area of a sphere is given by the formula:
$$SA = 4\pi r^2$$
where r is the radius of the sphere.
Substituting r = 6 cm into the formula, we get:
$$SA = 4\pi (6 cm)^2 = 144\pi cm^2$$
The volume of a sphere is given by the formula:
$$V = \frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$$
Substituting r = 6 cm into the formula, we get:
$$V = \frac{4}{3}\pi (6 cm)^3 = 288\pi cm^3$$
Frequently Asked Questions on Surface Area and Volume
What are the formulas for surface area and volume of cuboid?
Surface Area of a Cuboid
The surface area of a cuboid is the sum of the areas of its six faces. Since a cuboid has six rectangular faces, the formula for the surface area of a cuboid is:
$$SA = 2(lw + wh + lh)$$
where:
 l is the length of the cuboid
 w is the width of the cuboid
 h is the height of the cuboid
Example:
Find the surface area of a cuboid with length 5 cm, width 3 cm, and height 2 cm.
$$SA = 2(5 \times 3 + 3 \times 2 + 5 \times 2)$$ $$SA = 2(15 + 6 + 10)$$ $$SA = 2(31)$$ $$SA = 62 cm^2$$
Volume of a Cuboid
The volume of a cuboid is the amount of space it occupies. The formula for the volume of a cuboid is:
$$V = lwh$$
where:
 l is the length of the cuboid
 w is the width of the cuboid
 h is the height of the cuboid
Example:
Find the volume of a cuboid with length 5 cm, width 3 cm, and height 2 cm.
$$V = 5 \times 3 \times 2$$ $$V = 30 cm^3$$
What is the total surface area of the cylinder?
The total surface area of a cylinder is the sum of the areas of its two circular bases and its lateral surface.
Circular bases:
The area of a circle is given by the formula:
A = πr^2
where:
 A is the area of the circle in square units
 r is the radius of the circle in linear units
In the case of a cylinder, the radius of the circular bases is equal to the radius of the cylinder itself.
Lateral surface:
The lateral surface area of a cylinder is given by the formula:
A = 2πrh
where:
 A is the lateral surface area of the cylinder in square units
 r is the radius of the cylinder in linear units
 h is the height of the cylinder in linear units
Total surface area:
The total surface area of a cylinder is the sum of the areas of its two circular bases and its lateral surface:
A = 2πr^2 + 2πrh
Example:
A cylinder has a radius of 5 cm and a height of 10 cm. What is its total surface area?
A = 2πr^2 + 2πrh
A = 2π(5 cm)^2 + 2π(5 cm)(10 cm)
A = 2π(25 cm^2) + 2π(50 cm^2)
A = 50π cm^2 + 100π cm^2
A = 150π cm^2
Therefore, the total surface area of the cylinder is 150π cm^2.
How to calculate the volume of a coneshaped object?
Calculating the Volume of a ConeShaped Object:
The volume of a coneshaped object can be calculated using the formula:
Volume = (1/3) * π * r^2 * h
where:
 π (pi) is a mathematical constant approximately equal to 3.14.
 r is the radius of the cone’s base.
 h is the height of the cone.
To calculate the volume of a coneshaped object, follow these steps:

Measure the radius (r) of the cone’s base. This can be done using a ruler or measuring tape.

Measure the height (h) of the cone. This can also be done using a ruler or measuring tape.

Substitute the values of r and h into the formula:
Volume = (1/3) * π * r^2 * h
 Calculate the volume of the coneshaped object.
Here are some examples of calculating the volume of coneshaped objects:
Example 1:
 Radius (r) = 5 cm
 Height (h) = 10 cm
Volume = (1/3) * π * (5 cm)^2 * 10 cm
Volume ≈ 83.78 cm³
Example 2:
 Radius (r) = 3 inches
 Height (h) = 6 inches
Volume = (1/3) * π * (3 inches)^2 * 6 inches
Volume ≈ 56.55 cubic inches
Example 3:
 Radius (r) = 2.5 meters
 Height (h) = 4 meters
Volume = (1/3) * π * (2.5 meters)^2 * 4 meters
Volume ≈ 65.45 cubic meters
Remember that the units of measurement for the radius and height must be consistent (e.g., both in centimeters or both in inches) to obtain the volume in the appropriate units.
What is the total surface area of the hemisphere?
The total surface area of a hemisphere is the sum of the areas of its circular base and its curved surface. The formula for the total surface area of a hemisphere with radius r is:
$$A = 2\pi r^2$$
where:
 A is the total surface area of the hemisphere in square units
 r is the radius of the hemisphere in linear units
To calculate the total surface area of a hemisphere, you can use the following steps:
 Find the radius of the hemisphere.
 Substitute the radius into the formula for the total surface area of a hemisphere.
 Calculate the total surface area.
For example, if the radius of a hemisphere is 5 cm, then the total surface area of the hemisphere is:
$$A = 2\pi (5 cm)^2 = 50\pi cm^2$$
Therefore, the total surface area of the hemisphere is 50π cm².
Here are some additional examples of how to calculate the total surface area of a hemisphere:
 If the radius of a hemisphere is 10 m, then the total surface area of the hemisphere is:
$$A = 2\pi (10 m)^2 = 200\pi m^2$$
Therefore, the total surface area of the hemisphere is 200π m².
 If the radius of a hemisphere is 2.5 in, then the total surface area of the hemisphere is:
$$A = 2\pi (2.5 in)^2 = 15.625\pi in^2$$
Therefore, the total surface area of the hemisphere is 15.625π in².