Polynomials
Polynomials
Polynomials are algebraic expressions that consist of variables, coefficients, and exponents. They are used to represent a wide range of mathematical concepts, including equations, functions, and geometric shapes. Polynomials are classified according to their degree, which is the highest exponent of the variable. Linear polynomials have a degree of 1, quadratic polynomials have a degree of 2, and cubic polynomials have a degree of 3. Polynomials can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided, just like other algebraic expressions. They can also be graphed, which can help to visualize their behavior. Polynomials are used in many areas of mathematics and science, including calculus, physics, and engineering.
What is a Polynomial?
What is a Polynomial?
A polynomial is a mathematical expression that consists of a sum of terms, each of which is a product of a constant and a variable raised to a nonnegative integer power. The constant is called the coefficient of the term, and the variable is called the base of the term. The degree of a polynomial is the highest exponent of the variable in the polynomial.
For example, the following are all polynomials:
 (3x^2 + 2x  5)
 (x^3  2x^2 + 4x  1)
 (5)
The first polynomial has a degree of 2, the second polynomial has a degree of 3, and the third polynomial has a degree of 0.
Properties of Polynomials
Polynomials have a number of important properties, including:
 The sum of two polynomials is a polynomial.
 The product of two polynomials is a polynomial.
 A polynomial can be divided by a monomial (a polynomial with only one term) to produce a quotient and a remainder, both of which are polynomials.
 The derivative of a polynomial is a polynomial.
 The integral of a polynomial is a polynomial.
Applications of Polynomials
Polynomials are used in a wide variety of applications, including:
 Physics: Polynomials are used to model the motion of objects, the forces acting on objects, and the energy of objects.
 Engineering: Polynomials are used to design bridges, buildings, and other structures.
 Economics: Polynomials are used to model economic growth, inflation, and unemployment.
 Computer science: Polynomials are used to design algorithms, to solve problems, and to represent data.
Conclusion
Polynomials are a powerful tool that can be used to model a wide variety of phenomena. They are used in a variety of fields, including physics, engineering, economics, and computer science.
Standard Form of a Polynomial
The standard form of a polynomial is a mathematical expression in which the terms are arranged in descending order of their degrees. The degree of a term is the sum of the exponents of its variables. For example, in the polynomial (3x^2 + 2x  5), the degree of the first term is 2, the degree of the second term is 1, and the degree of the third term is 0.
To write a polynomial in standard form, you simply arrange the terms in descending order of their degrees. For example, the polynomial (3x^2 + 2x  5) would be written in standard form as (3x^2 + 2x  5).
Here are some additional examples of polynomials in standard form:
 (x^3 + 2x^2  3x + 4)
 (2x^4  5x^3 + 7x^2  3x + 1)
 (x^5  2x^4 + 3x^3  4x^2 + 5x  6)
The standard form of a polynomial is important because it makes it easier to perform mathematical operations on polynomials. For example, it is easier to add, subtract, and multiply polynomials when they are in standard form.
Here are some examples of how to perform mathematical operations on polynomials in standard form:
 To add two polynomials, simply add the coefficients of like terms. For example, to add the polynomials (3x^2 + 2x  5) and (2x^2  3x + 4), you would add the coefficients of the (x^2) terms, the coefficients of the (x) terms, and the coefficients of the constant terms. This would give you the polynomial (5x^2  x  1).
 To subtract two polynomials, simply subtract the coefficients of like terms. For example, to subtract the polynomial (2x^2  3x + 4) from the polynomial (3x^2 + 2x  5), you would subtract the coefficients of the (x^2) terms, the coefficients of the (x) terms, and the coefficients of the constant terms. This would give you the polynomial (x^2 + 5x  9).
 To multiply two polynomials, you can use the distributive property. For example, to multiply the polynomials (3x^2 + 2x  5) and (2x^2  3x + 4), you would multiply each term of the first polynomial by each term of the second polynomial. This would give you the polynomial (6x^4  5x^3  13x^2 + 22x  20).
The standard form of a polynomial is a powerful tool that can be used to perform a variety of mathematical operations. By understanding the standard form of a polynomial, you can make it easier to solve a variety of mathematical problems.
Degree of a Polynomial
Degree of a Polynomial
The degree of a polynomial is the highest exponent of the variable in the polynomial. For example, the polynomial $$3x^2 + 2x  5$$ has a degree of 2 because the highest exponent of the variable x is 2.
The degree of a polynomial can be used to determine several properties of the polynomial. For example, the degree of a polynomial determines the number of roots the polynomial has. A polynomial of degree n has at most n roots.
The degree of a polynomial can also be used to determine the end behavior of the polynomial. The end behavior of a polynomial is the behavior of the polynomial as x approaches infinity or negative infinity. A polynomial of even degree has the same end behavior as x^n, where n is the degree of the polynomial. A polynomial of odd degree has the same end behavior as x^n, where n is the degree of the polynomial and the sign of the leading coefficient is changed.
Examples
 The polynomial $$3x^2 + 2x  5$$ has a degree of 2. This means that the polynomial has at most 2 roots and that the end behavior of the polynomial is the same as x^2.
 The polynomial $$x^3  2x^2 + 3x  4$$ has a degree of 3. This means that the polynomial has at most 3 roots and that the end behavior of the polynomial is the same as x^3.
 The polynomial $$2x^4  3x^3 + 4x^2  5x + 6$$ has a degree of 4. This means that the polynomial has at most 4 roots and that the end behavior of the polynomial is the same as x^4.
Applications
The degree of a polynomial is used in a variety of applications, including:
 Finding the roots of a polynomial
 Determining the end behavior of a polynomial
 Graphing a polynomial
 Integrating a polynomial
 Differentiating a polynomial
The degree of a polynomial is a fundamental concept in algebra and is used in a wide variety of applications.
Terms of a Polynomial
Terms of a Polynomial
A polynomial is an algebraic expression that consists of a sum of terms. Each term is a product of a coefficient and a variable raised to a nonnegative integer power. The coefficient is a numerical or constant factor, and the variable is a letter that represents an unknown quantity. The power of the variable indicates how many times it is multiplied by itself.
For example, the polynomial (3x^2 + 2x  5) has three terms: (3x^2), (2x), and (5). The coefficient of the first term is 3, the coefficient of the second term is 2, and the coefficient of the third term is 5. The variable in each term is (x), and the powers of (x) are 2, 1, and 0, respectively.
The degree of a polynomial is the highest power of the variable in the polynomial. In the example above, the degree of the polynomial is 2.
Examples of Polynomials
Here are some examples of polynomials:
 (x^2 + 2x  3)
 (3x^3  2x^2 + 5x  1)
 (x^4 + 2x^3  3x^2 + 4x  5)
 (5) (a constant polynomial)
Operations on Polynomials
Polynomials can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided just like other algebraic expressions.
 To add two polynomials, simply add the like terms. For example,
$$(x^2 + 2x  3) + (3x^2  2x + 5) = 4x^2 + 5$$
 To subtract two polynomials, simply subtract the like terms. For example,
$$(x^2 + 2x  3)  (3x^2  2x + 5) = 2x^2 + 4x  8$$
 To multiply two polynomials, use the distributive property and the FOIL method. For example,
$$(x + 2)(x  3) = x^2  3x + 2x  6 = x^2  x  6$$
 To divide two polynomials, use long division. For example,
$$\frac{x^2 + 2x  3}{x  1} = x + 3$$
Applications of Polynomials
Polynomials are used in a wide variety of applications, including:
 Physics: Polynomials are used to model the motion of objects, such as the trajectory of a projectile.
 Engineering: Polynomials are used to design and analyze structures, such as bridges and buildings.
 Economics: Polynomials are used to model economic growth and inflation.
 Computer science: Polynomials are used in computer graphics and animation.
Polynomials are a powerful tool for representing and manipulating algebraic expressions. They have a wide range of applications in mathematics, science, engineering, and other fields.
Types of Polynomials
Types of Polynomials
A polynomial is an algebraic expression that consists of a sum of terms, each of which is a product of a constant and a variable raised to a nonnegative integer power. The degree of a polynomial is the highest exponent of the variable in the polynomial.
There are many different types of polynomials, each with its own unique properties. Some of the most common types of polynomials include:
 Linear polynomials are polynomials of degree 1. They have the form $$ax + b$$, where (a) and (b) are constants. For example, (3x + 2) is a linear polynomial.
 Quadratic polynomials are polynomials of degree 2. They have the form $$ax^2 + bx + c$$, where (a), (b), and (c) are constants. For example, (x^2 + 2x + 1) is a quadratic polynomial.
 Cubic polynomials are polynomials of degree 3. They have the form $$ax^3 + bx^2 + cx + d$$, where (a), (b), (c), and (d) are constants. For example, (x^3 + 2x^2 + 3x + 4) is a cubic polynomial.
 Quartic polynomials are polynomials of degree 4. They have the form $$ax^4 + bx^3 + cx^2 + dx + e$$, where (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) are constants. For example, (x^4 + 2x^3 + 3x^2 + 4x + 5) is a quartic polynomial.
Examples of Polynomials
Here are some examples of polynomials of different degrees:
 Linear polynomial: (3x + 2)
 Quadratic polynomial: (x^2 + 2x + 1)
 Cubic polynomial: (x^3 + 2x^2 + 3x + 4)
 Quartic polynomial: (x^4 + 2x^3 + 3x^2 + 4x + 5)
Applications of Polynomials
Polynomials have a wide variety of applications in mathematics, science, and engineering. Some of the most common applications of polynomials include:
 Curve fitting: Polynomials can be used to fit curves to data points. This can be useful for visualizing data and for making predictions.
 Solving equations: Polynomials can be used to solve equations. This can be done by factoring the polynomial or by using a numerical method.
 Optimization: Polynomials can be used to optimize functions. This can be done by finding the maximum or minimum value of the polynomial.
 Calculus: Polynomials are used in calculus to find derivatives and integrals. These concepts are essential for understanding the behavior of functions.
Polynomials are a powerful tool that can be used to solve a variety of problems. They are an essential part of mathematics, science, and engineering.
Properties
Properties are characteristics of objects that can be accessed and modified. They are defined within a class and can be of different types, such as strings, numbers, or booleans. Properties can be accessed using dot notation, and their values can be modified by assigning a new value to them.
For example, consider a class called Person
that has two properties: name
and age
. The following code shows how to define and access these properties:
class Person {
String name;
int age;
}
Person person = new Person();
person.name = "John Doe";
person.age = 30;
System.out.println(person.name); // prints "John Doe"
System.out.println(person.age); // prints 30
In this example, the name
and age
properties are defined as strings and integers, respectively. The name
property is assigned the value “John Doe”, and the age
property is assigned the value 30. The System.out.println()
statements are used to print the values of the properties to the console.
Properties can also be used to define relationships between objects. For example, consider a class called Car
that has a property called owner
that refers to a Person
object. The following code shows how to define this relationship:
class Person {
String name;
int age;
}
class Car {
String make;
String model;
Person owner;
}
Person person = new Person();
person.name = "John Doe";
person.age = 30;
Car car = new Car();
car.make = "Toyota";
car.model = "Camry";
car.owner = person;
System.out.println(car.owner.name); // prints "John Doe"
In this example, the owner
property of the Car
class refers to a Person
object. The person
object is created and assigned to the owner
property of the car
object. The System.out.println()
statement is used to print the name of the car’s owner to the console.
Properties are a fundamental concept in objectoriented programming and are used to represent the state of an object. They allow objects to store and access data, and to interact with each other.
Polynomial Equations
Polynomial equations are algebraic equations that involve one or more variables raised to whole number powers. They are often written in the form:
a_nx^n + a_{n1}x^{n1} + ... + a_1x + a_0 = 0
where:
a_n
is the coefficient of the highest degree termx
is the variablen
is the degree of the equation
Polynomial equations can be solved using a variety of methods, including:
 Factoring
 Completing the square
 Using the quadratic formula
 Using a graphing calculator
Factoring
Factoring is a method of solving polynomial equations by writing them as a product of two or more linear factors. For example, the equation:
x^2  4x + 3 = 0
can be factored as:
(x  1)(x  3) = 0
This means that the solutions to the equation are x = 1
and x = 3
.
Completing the square
Completing the square is a method of solving quadratic equations (equations of degree 2). It involves adding and subtracting a constant term to the equation so that it can be written in the form:
(x  h)^2 + k = 0
where h
and k
are constants.
The solution to this equation is then:
x = h ± √(k)
Using the quadratic formula
The quadratic formula is a formula that can be used to solve quadratic equations. It is:
x = (b ± √(b^2  4ac)) / 2a
where:
a
is the coefficient of the highest degree termb
is the coefficient of the middle termc
is the constant term
Using a graphing calculator
A graphing calculator can be used to solve polynomial equations by graphing the equation and finding the points where it intersects the xaxis. The xcoordinates of these points are the solutions to the equation.
Examples
Here are some examples of polynomial equations and their solutions:
x^2  4x + 3 = 0
(solutions:x = 1
andx = 3
)x^3  2x^2  5x + 6 = 0
(solutions:x = 1
,x = 2
, andx = 3
)x^4  3x^3 + 2x^2  5x + 2 = 0
(solutions:x = 1
,x = 2
,x = 1
, andx = 2
)
Polynomial equations are used in a variety of applications, including:
 Physics
 Engineering
 Economics
 Finance
 Computer science
Polynomial Functions
Polynomial functions are a type of function that can be expressed as a sum of terms, each of which is a constant multiplied by a power of the independent variable. The general form of a polynomial function is:
f(x) = a_nx^n + a_{n1}x^{n1} + ... + a_1x + a_0
where:
 (a_n, a_{n1}, …, a_1, a_0) are constants
 (x) is the independent variable
 (n) is a nonnegative integer
The degree of a polynomial function is the highest power of the independent variable that appears in the function. For example, the polynomial function (f(x) = 3x^2 + 2x  1) has degree 2.
Polynomial functions can be classified into several types based on their degree:
 Linear functions have degree 1. They are represented by the equation (f(x) = mx + b), where (m) and (b) are constants. Linear functions are the simplest type of polynomial function and they can be graphed as straight lines.
 Quadratic functions have degree 2. They are represented by the equation (f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c), where (a, b,) and (c) are constants. Quadratic functions can be graphed as parabolas.
 Cubic functions have degree 3. They are represented by the equation (f(x) = ax^3 + bx^2 + cx + d), where (a, b, c,) and (d) are constants. Cubic functions can be graphed as cubic curves.
Polynomial functions of higher degrees can also be defined, but they are less common.
Polynomial functions have a number of important properties. For example, they are continuous and differentiable at all points. They can also be integrated and differentiated using standard techniques.
Polynomial functions are used in a wide variety of applications, including:
 Modeling realworld data. Polynomial functions can be used to model a variety of realworld data, such as population growth, economic growth, and the motion of objects.
 Solving equations. Polynomial functions can be used to solve equations, such as the quadratic equation and the cubic equation.
 Approximating functions. Polynomial functions can be used to approximate other functions, such as trigonometric functions and exponential functions.
Polynomial functions are a powerful tool for representing and analyzing realworld data. They are used in a wide variety of applications and they have a number of important properties.
Solving Polynomials
Solving polynomials involves finding the values of the variable for which the polynomial equals zero. Polynomials are algebraic expressions that consist of variables raised to nonnegative integer powers and combined using addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Solving polynomials can be done using various methods, including factoring, synthetic division, and numerical methods.
1. Factoring: Factoring is a method of expressing a polynomial as a product of simpler polynomials. When a polynomial is factored, it becomes easier to find its roots. For example, consider the polynomial:
$$x^2  5x + 6$$
We can factor this polynomial by finding two numbers that add up to 5 and multiply to 6. These numbers are 2 and 3, so we can write:
$$x^2  5x + 6 = (x  2)(x  3)$$
Now, we can find the roots of the polynomial by setting each factor equal to zero:
$$x  2 = 0 \quad \Rightarrow \quad x = 2$$
$$x  3 = 0 \quad \Rightarrow \quad x = 3$$
Therefore, the roots of the polynomial (x^2  5x + 6) are (x = 2) and (x = 3).
2. Synthetic Division: Synthetic division is a method for dividing a polynomial by a linear factor of the form (x  a). It is a shortcut method that avoids long division and is particularly useful when dealing with polynomials with large coefficients.
For example, consider dividing the polynomial (x^3  2x^2 + x  2) by (x  1). Using synthetic division, we have:
1  1 2 1 2
 1 1 1
_______
1 3 0 2
The last number in the bottom row, 2, is the remainder. The quotient is (x^2  3x). Therefore, we can write:
$$x^3  2x^2 + x  2 = (x  1)(x^2  3x)  2$$
3. Numerical Methods: Numerical methods are iterative methods used to approximate the roots of a polynomial. These methods include the bisection method, the secant method, and the NewtonRaphson method.
The bisection method starts with an interval that contains a root and repeatedly bisects the interval until the root is approximated to a desired accuracy. The secant method uses two initial approximations and generates a sequence of approximations that converge to the root. The NewtonRaphson method uses the derivative of the polynomial to generate a sequence of approximations that converge to the root.
In summary, solving polynomials involves finding the values of the variable for which the polynomial equals zero. Factoring, synthetic division, and numerical methods are some of the techniques used to solve polynomials. The choice of method depends on the degree of the polynomial and the desired level of accuracy.
Polynomial Operations
Polynomial Examples
Polynomial Examples
A polynomial is an expression that consists of a sum of terms, each of which is a product of a constant and a variable raised to a nonnegative integer power. For example, the following are all polynomials:
 (3x^2 + 2x  5)
 (4x^3 + 7x^2  2x + 1)
 (x^5  3x^3 + 2x  1)
The degree of a polynomial is the highest exponent of the variable that appears in the polynomial. For example, the polynomial (3x^2 + 2x  5) has degree 2, the polynomial (4x^3 + 7x^2  2x + 1) has degree 3, and the polynomial (x^5  3x^3 + 2x  1) has degree 5.
Polynomials can be used to represent a wide variety of mathematical objects, including lines, circles, parabolas, and hyperbolas. They can also be used to solve a variety of problems, such as finding the roots of an equation or determining the area of a region.
Here are some examples of how polynomials are used in real life:
 In physics, polynomials are used to describe the motion of objects. For example, the equation (s = 16t^2 + vt_0 + s_0) describes the motion of an object in free fall, where (s) is the distance the object has fallen, (t) is the time since the object was released, (v_0) is the initial velocity of the object, and (s_0) is the initial height of the object.
 In engineering, polynomials are used to design bridges, buildings, and other structures. For example, the equation (y = x^2 + 2x + 1) describes the shape of a parabolic arch, which is often used in bridges and buildings.
 In economics, polynomials are used to model economic growth and inflation. For example, the equation (y = ax^2 + bx + c) describes a quadratic model of economic growth, where (y) is the gross domestic product (GDP), (x) is time, and (a), (b), and (c) are constants.
 In computer science, polynomials are used to represent data and perform calculations. For example, polynomials can be used to represent images, sound files, and other types of data. They can also be used to perform calculations, such as finding the roots of an equation or determining the area of a region.
Polynomials are a powerful tool that can be used to represent a wide variety of mathematical objects and solve a variety of problems. They are used in a variety of fields, including physics, engineering, economics, and computer science.
Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs
What is a Polynomial?
What is a Polynomial?
A polynomial is a mathematical expression that consists of a sum of terms, each of which is a product of a constant and a variable raised to a nonnegative integer power. The constant is called the coefficient of the term, and the variable is called the base of the term. The degree of a polynomial is the highest exponent of the variable in the polynomial.
For example, the following are all polynomials:
 (3x^2 + 2x  5)
 (x^3  2x^2 + 4x  1)
 (5)
The first polynomial has a degree of 2, the second polynomial has a degree of 3, and the third polynomial has a degree of 0.
Properties of Polynomials
Polynomials have a number of important properties, including:
 The sum of two polynomials is a polynomial.
 The product of two polynomials is a polynomial.
 A polynomial can be divided by a monomial (a polynomial with only one term) to produce a quotient and a remainder, both of which are polynomials.
 The derivative of a polynomial is a polynomial.
 The integral of a polynomial is a polynomial.
Applications of Polynomials
Polynomials are used in a wide variety of applications, including:
 Physics: Polynomials are used to model the motion of objects, the forces acting on objects, and the energy of objects.
 Engineering: Polynomials are used to design bridges, buildings, and other structures.
 Economics: Polynomials are used to model economic growth, inflation, and unemployment.
 Computer science: Polynomials are used to design algorithms, to solve problems, and to represent data.
Conclusion
Polynomials are a powerful tool that can be used to model a wide variety of phenomena. They are used in a variety of fields, including physics, engineering, economics, and computer science.
What are terms, degrees and exponents in a polynomial?
Terms in a Polynomial
A polynomial is an algebraic expression that consists of a sum of terms. Each term in a polynomial is a product of a coefficient and a variable raised to a nonnegative integer power.
For example, the polynomial $$3x^2 + 2x  5$$ has three terms: $$3x^2, 2x,$$ and $$5$$. The coefficient of the first term is 3, the coefficient of the second term is 2, and the coefficient of the third term is 5. The variable in each term is x, and the exponents of x are 2, 1, and 0, respectively.
Degrees of Terms in a Polynomial
The degree of a term in a polynomial is the sum of the exponents of the variables in the term.
For example, the degree of the term $$3x^2$$ is 2, the degree of the term $$2x$$ is 1, and the degree of the term $$5$$ is 0.
Exponents in a Polynomial
The exponents in a polynomial are the nonnegative integer powers to which the variables are raised.
For example, the exponents in the polynomial $$3x^2 + 2x  5$$ are 2, 1, and 0.
Examples of Polynomials
Here are some examples of polynomials:
 $$x^2 + 2x  3$$ is a quadratic polynomial.
 $$x^3  2x^2 + 3x  4$$ is a cubic polynomial.
 $$x^4 + 2x^3  3x^2 + 4x  5$$ is a quartic polynomial.
Applications of Polynomials
Polynomials are used in a wide variety of applications, including:
 Algebra
 Calculus
 Physics
 Engineering
 Economics
 Statistics
Polynomials are a powerful tool for representing and solving a variety of problems.
What is the standard form of the polynomial?
The standard form of a polynomial is a mathematical expression in which the terms are arranged in descending order of their exponents. The general form of a polynomial of degree n is:
P(x) = a<sub>n</sub>x<sup>n</sup> + a<sub>n1</sub>x<sup>n1</sup> + ... + a<sub>1</sub>x + a<sub>0</sub>
where a_{n}, a_{n1}, …, a_{1}, and a_{0} are constants and x is the variable.
For example, the standard form of the polynomial 3x^{2}  2x + 1 is:
P(x) = 3x<sup>2</sup>  2x + 1
The standard form of a polynomial is useful for a number of reasons. First, it makes it easy to compare polynomials and determine their degrees. Second, it makes it easy to perform operations on polynomials, such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Third, it makes it easy to graph polynomials.
Here are some additional examples of polynomials in standard form:
 x^{3}  2x^{2} + 3x  4
 2x^{4} + 3x^{3}  5x^{2} + 7x  1
 x^{5} + 2x^{3}  3x^{2} + 4x  5
The standard form of a polynomial is not always the most convenient form for a particular application. For example, when graphing a polynomial, it is often more convenient to use the factored form. However, the standard form is always the most general form of a polynomial, and it is the form that is used in most mathematical operations.
What is the degree of zero and constant polynomial?
Degree of a Polynomial
The degree of a polynomial is the highest exponent of the variable in the polynomial. For example, the polynomial $$3x^2 + 2x  5$$ has a degree of 2, since the highest exponent of the variable x is 2.
Degree of Zero Polynomial
The degree of a zero polynomial is undefined. This is because a zero polynomial is a polynomial that has no terms, and therefore no variable. For example, the polynomial 0 has a degree of undefined.
Degree of Constant Polynomial
The degree of a constant polynomial is 0. This is because a constant polynomial is a polynomial that has only one term, and that term is a constant. For example, the polynomial 5 has a degree of 0.
Examples
Here are some examples of polynomials and their degrees:
 $$x^3 + 2x^2  5x + 1$$ has a degree of 3.
 $$2x^2  3x + 4$$ has a degree of 2.
 $$5x  2$$ has a degree of 1.
 $$7$$ has a degree of 0.
 $$0$$ has a degree of undefined.
Applications
The degree of a polynomial can be used to determine the following:
 The number of roots of a polynomial. A polynomial of degree n has at most n roots.
 The behavior of a polynomial as x approaches infinity. A polynomial of degree n grows at most as fast as x^n as x approaches infinity.
 The concavity of a polynomial. A polynomial of degree n has at most n  1 turning points.
Is 8 a polynomial?
Is 8 a polynomial?
A polynomial is an expression that consists of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that are combined using the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication. The variables are typically represented by letters, such as x, y, and z, while the coefficients are constants, such as 1, 2, and 3.
A polynomial can be of any degree, which is the highest exponent of the variable in the expression. For example, the polynomial x^2 + 2x + 1 is a quadratic polynomial, because the highest exponent of the variable x is 2.
So, is 8 a polynomial?
No, 8 is not a polynomial. This is because 8 is a constant, and a polynomial must contain at least one variable.
Here are some examples of polynomials:
 x + 2
 3x^2  2x + 1
 x^3 + 2x^2  3x + 4
Here are some examples of expressions that are not polynomials:
 8
 √x
 sin(x)
 e^x
In general, a polynomial is an expression that can be written in the form:
a_nx^n + a_{n1}x^{n1} + ... + a_1x + a_0
where n is a nonnegative integer, a_n, a_{n1}, …, a_1, and a_0 are constants, and x is a variable.
How to add and subtract polynomials?
Adding and subtracting polynomials involves combining like terms and simplifying the resulting expression. Here’s a stepbystep explanation with examples:
Adding Polynomials:

Identify Like Terms: Like terms are terms that have the same variable(s) raised to the same power. For example, in the polynomials 3x^2 + 2x  5 and 4x^2  3x + 7, the like terms are 3x^2 and 4x^2, 2x and 3x, and 5 and 7.

Group Like Terms: Group the like terms together in each polynomial.

Add Coefficients: Add the coefficients of the like terms. For example, in the polynomials above, we have: (3x^2 + 4x^2) + (2x  3x) + (5 + 7)

Simplify: Simplify the expression by combining the like terms. (3x^2 + 4x^2) becomes 7x^2 (2x  3x) becomes x (5 + 7) becomes 2

Write the Result: Write the simplified expression as the sum of the polynomials. 7x^2  x + 2
Subtracting Polynomials:

Identify Like Terms: Identify the like terms in both polynomials.

Group Like Terms: Group the like terms together in each polynomial.

Subtract Coefficients: Subtract the coefficients of the like terms. For example, in the polynomials 5x^2  2x + 3 and 2x^2 + 4x  5, we have: (5x^2  2x^2) + (2x  4x) + (3  (5))

Simplify: Simplify the expression by combining the like terms. (5x^2  2x^2) becomes 3x^2 (2x  4x) becomes 6x (3  (5)) becomes 8

Write the Result: Write the simplified expression as the difference of the polynomials. 3x^2  6x + 8
Examples:

Add the polynomials (3x^2 + 2x  5) and (4x^2  3x + 7). Solution: (3x^2 + 4x^2) + (2x  3x) + (5 + 7) = 7x^2  x + 2

Subtract the polynomial (2x^2 + 4x  5) from the polynomial (5x^2  2x + 3). Solution: (5x^2  2x^2) + (2x  4x) + (3  (5)) = 3x^2  6x + 8
Remember, when adding or subtracting polynomials, always combine like terms and simplify the expression by adding or subtracting the coefficients.