Number System
Number System
A number system is a way of representing numbers. The most common number system is the decimal system, which uses 10 digits (09) to represent numbers. Other number systems include the binary system (which uses 2 digits, 0 and 1), the hexadecimal system (which uses 16 digits, 09 and AF), and the octal system (which uses 8 digits, 07).
Each number system has its own set of rules for representing numbers. In the decimal system, for example, the value of a digit depends on its position within the number. The digit 5 in the number 534 represents 5 hundreds, while the digit 5 in the number 53.4 represents 5 tenths.
Number systems are used in a variety of applications, including mathematics, science, engineering, and computer science. The decimal system is the most widely used number system in the world, but other number systems are also used for specific purposes. For example, the binary system is used in computers because it is easy to represent numbers in binary using electronic circuits.
What is Number System in Maths?
Number System in Maths
A number system is a way of representing numbers. There are many different number systems, but the most common one is the decimal system, which uses the digits 09. In the decimal system, the value of a digit depends on its position in the number. For example, in the number 123, the 1 represents 100, the 2 represents 20, and the 3 represents 3.
Other common number systems include the binary system, which uses only the digits 0 and 1, and the hexadecimal system, which uses the digits 09 and the letters AF.
Number systems are used in a variety of applications, including:
 Counting: Number systems are used to count objects. For example, if you have 10 apples, you can use the decimal system to represent this number as 10.
 Measurement: Number systems are used to measure quantities. For example, if you want to measure the length of a room, you can use the metric system to represent this measurement in meters.
 Computation: Number systems are used to perform calculations. For example, if you want to add two numbers, you can use the decimal system to add the digits of the two numbers.
Here are some examples of different number systems:
 Decimal system: The decimal system is the most common number system in the world. It uses the digits 09. In the decimal system, the value of a digit depends on its position in the number. For example, in the number 123, the 1 represents 100, the 2 represents 20, and the 3 represents 3.
 Binary system: The binary system is a number system that uses only the digits 0 and 1. It is used in computers because it is easy for computers to process. In the binary system, the value of a digit depends on its position in the number. For example, in the number 101, the 1 on the left represents 4, the 0 in the middle represents 2, and the 1 on the right represents 1.
 Hexadecimal system: The hexadecimal system is a number system that uses the digits 09 and the letters AF. It is used in computers because it is a more compact way to represent large numbers. In the hexadecimal system, the value of a digit depends on its position in the number. For example, in the number 1A2, the 1 represents 16, the A represents 10, and the 2 represents 2.
Number systems are a fundamental part of mathematics. They are used in a variety of applications, from counting and measurement to computation.
What is a Number?
What is a Number?
A number is a mathematical object used to represent a quantity. Numbers can be used to count objects, measure distances, and represent values. There are many different types of numbers, including natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, and complex numbers.
Natural Numbers
Natural numbers are the numbers we use to count objects. They start with 1 and continue indefinitely. The natural numbers are {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …}.
Integers
Integers are the numbers that can be written without a fractional part. They include the natural numbers, as well as the negative numbers. The integers are {… 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …}.
Rational Numbers
Rational numbers are numbers that can be expressed as a fraction of two integers. For example, 1/2, 3/4, and 5/7 are all rational numbers. The rational numbers are the set of all numbers that can be written in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b is not equal to 0.
Irrational Numbers
Irrational numbers are numbers that cannot be expressed as a fraction of two integers. For example, pi (π) and the square root of 2 (√2) are both irrational numbers. The irrational numbers are the set of all numbers that cannot be written in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b is not equal to 0.
Complex Numbers
Complex numbers are numbers that have both a real part and an imaginary part. The real part is the part of the number that is on the number line. The imaginary part is the part of the number that is multiplied by the imaginary unit i. The imaginary unit is a number that is equal to the square root of 1. Complex numbers are written in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i is the imaginary unit.
Examples of Numbers
Here are some examples of numbers:
 3 is a natural number.
 5 is an integer.
 1/2 is a rational number.
 π is an irrational number.
 3 + 4i is a complex number.
Number Theory
Number theory is the branch of mathematics that deals with the study of numbers. Number theorists study the properties of numbers, such as their divisibility, primality, and factorization. Number theory has many applications, such as cryptography, coding theory, and computer science.
Types of Number Systems
Types of Number Systems
A number system is a way of representing numbers. There are many different number systems, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the most common number systems include:
 Decimal system: The decimal system is the most common number system in the world. It is based on the number 10, and each place value represents a power of 10. For example, the number 123 represents 1 x 10^2 + 2 x 10^1 + 3 x 10^0.
 Binary system: The binary system is based on the number 2. Each place value represents a power of 2. For example, the number 1011 represents 1 x 2^3 + 0 x 2^2 + 1 x 2^1 + 1 x 2^0.
 Hexadecimal system: The hexadecimal system is based on the number 16. Each place value represents a power of 16. For example, the number A3F represents 10 x 16^2 + 3 x 16^1 + 15 x 16^0.
 Octal system: The octal system is based on the number 8. Each place value represents a power of 8. For example, the number 753 represents 7 x 8^2 + 5 x 8^1 + 3 x 8^0.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Number Systems
Each number system has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the decimal system include:
 Advantages:
 Easy to understand and use
 Widely used around the world
 Can represent any number
 Disadvantages:
 Not as efficient as other number systems for representing large numbers
 Can be difficult to convert between decimal and other number systems
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the binary system include:
 Advantages:
 Very efficient for representing large numbers
 Easy to convert between binary and other number systems
 Disadvantages:
 Can be difficult to understand and use
 Not as widely used as the decimal system
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the hexadecimal system include:
 Advantages:
 Very efficient for representing large numbers
 Easy to convert between hexadecimal and other number systems
 Disadvantages:
 Can be difficult to understand and use
 Not as widely used as the decimal system
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the octal system include:
 Advantages:
 Very efficient for representing large numbers
 Easy to convert between octal and other number systems
 Disadvantages:
 Can be difficult to understand and use
 Not as widely used as the decimal system
Applications of Different Number Systems
Different number systems are used in a variety of applications. Some of the applications of the decimal system include:
 Counting money
 Measuring distance
 Weighing objects
 Calculating time
Some of the applications of the binary system include:
 Computer programming
 Data storage
 Telecommunications
Some of the applications of the hexadecimal system include:
 Computer programming
 Web design
 Color coding
Some of the applications of the octal system include:
 Computer programming
 Telecommunications
 Electronics
Conclusion
Number systems are an essential part of mathematics and computer science. There are many different number systems, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common number system in the world is the decimal system, but other number systems are also used in a variety of applications.
Number System Chart
Number System Chart
The number system chart is a visual representation of the different number systems used throughout history. It shows how each system is related to the others, and how they have evolved over time.
The chart is divided into three main sections:
 The Ancient Number Systems
 The Modern Number Systems
 The Exotic Number Systems
The Ancient Number Systems
The ancient number systems are the earliest systems of numbers that were developed by humans. They include:
 The Egyptian Number System
 The Babylonian Number System
 The Greek Number System
 The Roman Number System
These systems were all based on different ways of representing numbers using symbols. For example, the Egyptian system used hieroglyphs, the Babylonian system used cuneiform, and the Roman system used letters.
The Modern Number Systems
The modern number systems are the systems that are used today in most parts of the world. They include:
 The HinduArabic Number System
 The Chinese Number System
 The Japanese Number System
These systems are all based on the concept of place value, which means that the position of a digit in a number determines its value. For example, in the HinduArabic system, the digit “1” in the ones place represents the number 1, the digit “1” in the tens place represents the number 10, and the digit “1” in the hundreds place represents the number 100.
The Exotic Number Systems
The exotic number systems are systems of numbers that are not widely used today. They include:
 The Mayan Number System
 The Aztec Number System
 The Inca Number System
These systems are all based on different ways of representing numbers using symbols. For example, the Mayan system used a base20 system, the Aztec system used a base8 system, and the Inca system used a base10 system.
The Number System Chart
The number system chart is a valuable tool for understanding the different ways that humans have represented numbers throughout history. It shows how each system is related to the others, and how they have evolved over time.
Examples
Here are some examples of how the number system chart can be used:
 To compare the different ways that numbers are represented in different cultures.
 To understand the evolution of the number system.
 To learn about the different ways that numbers are used in mathematics and science.
The number system chart is a fascinating and informative tool that can be used to learn more about the history and development of mathematics.
Number System Conversion
Number System Conversion:
Number system conversion involves changing the representation of a number from one base (or radix) to another. Different number systems are used to represent numbers, and each system has its own set of digits and rules. The most common number systems are the decimal system (base 10), the binary system (base 2), the hexadecimal system (base 16), and the octal system (base 8).

Decimal to Binary Conversion: To convert a decimal number to binary, we repeatedly divide the decimal number by 2 and note the remainders. The remainders, read from bottom to top, form the binary representation of the decimal number.
Example: Convert the decimal number 13 to binary. 13 / 2 = 6 remainder 1 6 / 2 = 3 remainder 0 3 / 2 = 1 remainder 1 1 / 2 = 0 remainder 1 Reading the remainders from bottom to top, we get the binary representation of 13 as 1101.

Binary to Decimal Conversion: To convert a binary number to decimal, we multiply each digit of the binary number by the corresponding power of 2 and add the results.
Example: Convert the binary number 1011 to decimal. 1 x 2^3 = 8 0 x 2^2 = 0 1 x 2^1 = 2 1 x 2^0 = 1 Adding the results, we get the decimal representation of 1011 as 11.

Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion: To convert a hexadecimal number to decimal, we multiply each digit of the hexadecimal number by the corresponding power of 16 and add the results.
Example: Convert the hexadecimal number 2AF to decimal. 2 x 16^2 = 512 A x 16^1 = 160 F x 16^0 = 15 Adding the results, we get the decimal representation of 2AF as 687.

Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion: To convert a decimal number to hexadecimal, we repeatedly divide the decimal number by 16 and note the remainders. The remainders, read from bottom to top, form the hexadecimal representation of the decimal number.
Example: Convert the decimal number 255 to hexadecimal. 255 / 16 = 15 remainder 15 15 / 16 = 0 remainder 15 Reading the remainders from bottom to top, we get the hexadecimal representation of 255 as FF.
These are just a few examples of number system conversions. There are various other number systems, such as the octal system (base 8) and the duodecimal system (base 12), and conversions between these systems can be performed using similar methods.
Number System Solved Examples
Number System Solved Examples
1. Decimal to Binary
To convert a decimal number to binary, we repeatedly divide the decimal number by 2 and write down the remainders in reverse order.
For example, to convert 13 to binary:
13 ÷ 2 = 6 remainder 1 6 ÷ 2 = 3 remainder 0 3 ÷ 2 = 1 remainder 1 1 ÷ 2 = 0 remainder 1
So, 13 in binary is 1101.
2. Binary to Decimal
To convert a binary number to decimal, we multiply each digit of the binary number by the corresponding power of 2 and add the results.
For example, to convert 1101 to decimal:
1 × 2^3 = 8 1 × 2^2 = 4 0 × 2^1 = 0 1 × 2^0 = 1
So, 1101 in decimal is 13.
3. Hexadecimal to Decimal
To convert a hexadecimal number to decimal, we multiply each digit of the hexadecimal number by the corresponding power of 16 and add the results.
For example, to convert A3F to decimal:
A × 16^2 = 16 × 16 = 256 3 × 16^1 = 3 × 16 = 48 F × 16^0 = 15 × 1 = 15
So, A3F in decimal is 256 + 48 + 15 = 319.
4. Decimal to Hexadecimal
To convert a decimal number to hexadecimal, we repeatedly divide the decimal number by 16 and write down the remainders in reverse order.
For example, to convert 319 to hexadecimal:
319 ÷ 16 = 19 remainder 15 19 ÷ 16 = 1 remainder 3 1 ÷ 16 = 0 remainder 1
So, 319 in hexadecimal is 13F.
5. Octal to Decimal
To convert an octal number to decimal, we multiply each digit of the octal number by the corresponding power of 8 and add the results.
For example, to convert 753 to decimal:
7 × 8^2 = 7 × 64 = 448 5 × 8^1 = 5 × 8 = 40 3 × 8^0 = 3 × 1 = 3
So, 753 in decimal is 448 + 40 + 3 = 491.
6. Decimal to Octal
To convert a decimal number to octal, we repeatedly divide the decimal number by 8 and write down the remainders in reverse order.
For example, to convert 491 to octal:
491 ÷ 8 = 61 remainder 3 61 ÷ 8 = 7 remainder 5 7 ÷ 8 = 0 remainder 7
So, 491 in octal is 753.
Number System Questions
Number System Questions
Number system questions test your understanding of how numbers are represented and manipulated in different bases. These questions can be challenging, but they are also very important, as they form the foundation for many other areas of mathematics.
Examples of Number System Questions
 What is the binary representation of the decimal number 10?
 Convert the hexadecimal number FF to decimal.
 Add the binary numbers 1011 and 1101.
 Subtract the hexadecimal numbers 1A from 2F.
 Multiply the decimal numbers 123 and 456.
 Divide the decimal number 1234 by 56.
How to Solve Number System Questions
To solve number system questions, you need to have a good understanding of how numbers are represented in different bases. You also need to be able to perform basic arithmetic operations in different bases.
Here are some tips for solving number system questions:
 Start by converting all numbers to the same base. This will make it easier to compare and manipulate the numbers.
 Use a calculator to help you with the calculations. This will save you time and reduce the risk of errors.
 Check your work carefully. Make sure that you have converted all numbers correctly and that you have performed the operations correctly.
Number System Questions in Real Life
Number system questions are used in a variety of reallife applications, including:
 Computer science: Number system questions are used to represent and manipulate data in computers.
 Engineering: Number system questions are used to design and build electronic circuits.
 Mathematics: Number system questions are used to study the properties of numbers and to develop new mathematical theories.
 Physics: Number system questions are used to model the behavior of physical systems.
Number system questions are a fundamental part of mathematics and computer science. By understanding how numbers are represented and manipulated in different bases, you can open up a world of possibilities in these fields.
Frequently Asked Questions on Number System
What is Number System and its Types?
Number System
A number system is a way of representing numbers. There are many different number systems, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common number system is the decimal system, which uses 10 digits (09) to represent numbers. Other common number systems include the binary system (which uses 2 digits, 0 and 1), the hexadecimal system (which uses 16 digits, 09 and AF), and the octal system (which uses 8 digits, 07).
Types of Number Systems
There are two main types of number systems: positional and nonpositional.
 Positional number systems are number systems in which the value of a digit depends on its position in the number. For example, in the decimal system, the digit 1 in the ones place represents 1, the digit 1 in the tens place represents 10, and the digit 1 in the hundreds place represents 100.
 Nonpositional number systems are number systems in which the value of a digit does not depend on its position in the number. For example, in the Roman numeral system, the symbol I represents 1, the symbol V represents 5, and the symbol X represents 10, regardless of their position in the number.
Examples of Number Systems
Here are some examples of different number systems:
 Decimal system: The decimal system is the most common number system in the world. It uses 10 digits (09) to represent numbers. The value of a digit in the decimal system depends on its position in the number. For example, the digit 1 in the ones place represents 1, the digit 1 in the tens place represents 10, and the digit 1 in the hundreds place represents 100.
 Binary system: The binary system is a number system that uses only two digits, 0 and 1. The value of a digit in the binary system depends on its position in the number. For example, the digit 1 in the ones place represents 1, the digit 1 in the twos place represents 2, and the digit 1 in the fours place represents 4.
 Hexadecimal system: The hexadecimal system is a number system that uses 16 digits, 09 and AF. The value of a digit in the hexadecimal system depends on its position in the number. For example, the digit A in the ones place represents 10, the digit A in the tens place represents 160, and the digit A in the hundreds place represents 2560.
 Octal system: The octal system is a number system that uses 8 digits, 07. The value of a digit in the octal system depends on its position in the number. For example, the digit 7 in the ones place represents 7, the digit 7 in the eights place represents 56, and the digit 7 in the sixtyfours place represents 448.
Applications of Number Systems
Number systems are used in a wide variety of applications, including:
 Mathematics: Number systems are used to represent numbers and perform mathematical operations.
 Computer science: Number systems are used to represent data in computers.
 Engineering: Number systems are used to represent measurements and perform calculations.
 Finance: Number systems are used to represent currency and perform financial calculations.
 Science: Number systems are used to represent measurements and perform scientific calculations.
Why is the Number System Important?
The Number System: A Foundation for Understanding the World
The number system is a fundamental concept that serves as the cornerstone of mathematics and plays a crucial role in our daily lives. It provides a systematic way to represent quantities, perform calculations, and communicate mathematical ideas. Understanding the importance of the number system requires delving into its various aspects and exploring its applications in different fields.
1. Communication and Language of Mathematics: The number system acts as a universal language for expressing mathematical concepts and ideas. It enables mathematicians, scientists, and individuals from diverse backgrounds to communicate effectively and precisely. Without a standardized number system, mathematical discourse would be chaotic and hinder the development of advanced mathematical theories.
2. Counting and Measurement: The number system allows us to count and measure physical quantities accurately. From counting objects in our surroundings to measuring distances, weights, and volumes, the number system provides a common framework for quantifying and comparing different entities.
3. Mathematical Operations: The number system facilitates the performance of mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These operations are essential for solving problems, making calculations, and analyzing data in various fields, including science, engineering, economics, and everyday life.
4. Patterns and Relationships: The number system helps us identify patterns and relationships in data. By analyzing numerical sequences, we can uncover underlying trends, make predictions, and draw meaningful conclusions. This aspect of the number system is vital in statistics, data analysis, and scientific research.
5. Currency and Commerce: The number system is indispensable in the world of currency and commerce. It enables us to assign values to goods and services, calculate prices, and conduct financial transactions efficiently. Without a standardized number system, economic activities would be chaotic and prone to errors.
6. Science and Engineering: The number system is the backbone of scientific and engineering disciplines. It is used to measure physical quantities, perform calculations, analyze data, and develop models. From physics and chemistry to engineering and computer science, the number system is an essential tool for understanding and manipulating the natural world.
7. Technology and Computing: The number system is the foundation of digital technology and computing. Computers process information using binary numbers, which are based on the number system. The ability to represent and manipulate numbers efficiently is crucial for the functioning of computers, smartphones, and other electronic devices.
8. ProblemSolving and DecisionMaking: The number system empowers us to solve problems and make informed decisions. By quantifying information and analyzing numerical data, we can gain insights, draw conclusions, and make predictions. This aspect of the number system is valuable in fields such as business, finance, healthcare, and social sciences.
Examples:

Counting: We use the number system to count the number of people in a room, the number of books on a shelf, or the number of steps we take in a day.

Measurement: We use the number system to measure the length of a table, the weight of a person, or the temperature of a room.

Mathematical Operations: We use the number system to perform mathematical operations such as adding up our grocery bill, calculating the area of a room, or determining the average score on a test.

Patterns and Relationships: We use the number system to identify patterns and relationships in data, such as the growth of a population over time or the relationship between the price of a stock and its earnings.

Currency and Commerce: We use the number system to assign values to goods and services, calculate prices, and conduct financial transactions.

Science and Engineering: We use the number system to measure physical quantities, perform calculations, analyze data, and develop models in fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, and computer science.

Technology and Computing: We use the number system to represent and manipulate information in digital technology and computing.

ProblemSolving and DecisionMaking: We use the number system to solve problems and make informed decisions in fields such as business, finance, healthcare, and social sciences.
In conclusion, the number system is a fundamental tool that underpins our understanding of the world and enables us to communicate, measure, calculate, and analyze information effectively. Its importance extends across various disciplines and aspects of our daily lives, making it an indispensable part of human knowledge and progress.
What is Base 1 Number System Called?
The base1 number system is called the unary system. In this system, each number is represented by a single mark, such as a tally mark. For example, the number 3 would be represented by three tally marks:



The unary system is the simplest possible number system, and it is used in a variety of applications, such as:
 Counting objects
 Keeping track of scores
 Representing data in a computer
Here are some additional examples of numbers in the unary system:
 The number 5 would be represented by five tally marks:





 The number 10 would be represented by ten tally marks:










 The number 20 would be represented by twenty tally marks:




















The unary system is not very efficient for representing large numbers, but it is very simple to understand and use. This makes it a good choice for applications where simplicity is more important than efficiency.
What is the equivalent binary number for the decimal number 43?
To convert a decimal number to its equivalent binary number, we can use the method of successive division by 2. Here’s how it works:
 Start with the decimal number 43.
 Divide 43 by 2. The quotient is 21, and the remainder is 1.
 Write down the remainder (1) as the least significant bit (LSB) of the binary number.
 Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the quotient (21).
 Divide 21 by 2. The quotient is 10, and the remainder is 1.
 Write down the remainder (1) as the next bit of the binary number.
 Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the new quotient (10).
 Divide 10 by 2. The quotient is 5, and the remainder is 0.
 Write down the remainder (0) as the next bit of the binary number.
 Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the new quotient (5).
 Divide 5 by 2. The quotient is 2, and the remainder is 1.
 Write down the remainder (1) as the next bit of the binary number.
 Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the new quotient (2).
 Divide 2 by 2. The quotient is 1, and the remainder is 0.
 Write down the remainder (0) as the next bit of the binary number.
 Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the new quotient (1).
 Divide 1 by 2. The quotient is 0, and the remainder is 1.
 Write down the remainder (1) as the most significant bit (MSB) of the binary number.
The binary equivalent of the decimal number 43 is 101011.
Here’s another example:
Convert the decimal number 12 to its equivalent binary number.
 Start with the decimal number 12.
 Divide 12 by 2. The quotient is 6, and the remainder is 0.
 Write down the remainder (0) as the LSB of the binary number.
 Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the quotient (6).
 Divide 6 by 2. The quotient is 3, and the remainder is 0.
 Write down the remainder (0) as the next bit of the binary number.
 Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the new quotient (3).
 Divide 3 by 2. The quotient is 1, and the remainder is 1.
 Write down the remainder (1) as the next bit of the binary number.
 Repeat steps 2 and 3 with the new quotient (1).
 Divide 1 by 2. The quotient is 0, and the remainder is 1.
 Write down the remainder (1) as the MSB of the binary number.
The binary equivalent of the decimal number 12 is 1100.
How to convert 308 into a decimal number?
Converting 308 from base 10 (decimal) to base 2 (binary) involves repeated division by 2 and collecting the remainders in reverse order. Here’s the stepbystep process:

Divide 308 by 2: 308 ÷ 2 = 154 with a remainder of 0.

Divide 154 by 2: 154 ÷ 2 = 77 with a remainder of 0.

Divide 77 by 2: 77 ÷ 2 = 38 with a remainder of 1.

Divide 38 by 2: 38 ÷ 2 = 19 with a remainder of 0.

Divide 19 by 2: 19 ÷ 2 = 9 with a remainder of 1.

Divide 9 by 2: 9 ÷ 2 = 4 with a remainder of 1.

Divide 4 by 2: 4 ÷ 2 = 2 with a remainder of 0.

Divide 2 by 2: 2 ÷ 2 = 1 with a remainder of 0.

Divide 1 by 2: 1 ÷ 2 = 0 with a remainder of 1.
Now, collect the remainders in reverse order to obtain the binary representation of 308:
100110100
Therefore, 308 in decimal is equivalent to 100110100 in binary.