Maths Lines
What is a Line?
A line is a onedimensional object that extends infinitely in both directions. It is defined by its length and direction. Lines can be straight or curved.
Properties of a Line
The following are some of the properties of a line:
 Length: The length of a line is the distance between any two points on the line.
 Direction: The direction of a line is determined by the angle it makes with the positive xaxis.
 Slope: The slope of a line is the ratio of the change in y to the change in x.
 Yintercept: The yintercept of a line is the point where the line crosses the yaxis.
 Xintercept: The xintercept of a line is the point where the line crosses the xaxis.
Lines are a fundamental concept in mathematics and have a wide variety of applications. They are used to represent a variety of objects, from geometric shapes to the motion of objects.
Line Segment
A line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct points. The two points are called the endpoints of the line segment. A line segment can be represented by the two points that define it, such as $AB$, where $A$ and $B$ are the endpoints.
Properties of a Line Segment
 A line segment is a onedimensional object.
 A line segment has a definite length.
 A line segment can be measured in units of length, such as inches, centimeters, or meters.
 A line segment can be drawn in any direction.
 A line segment can be extended indefinitely in either direction.
Notation for a Line Segment
A line segment can be represented by the two points that define it, such as $AB$, where $A$ and $B$ are the endpoints. The length of a line segment can be represented by the symbol $\overline{AB}$, where $\overline{AB}$ is the distance between the points $A$ and $B$.
Examples of Line Segments
 A piece of string
 A chalk line
 A laser beam
 The edge of a table
 The side of a building
Applications of Line Segments
Line segments are used in a variety of applications, including:
 Geometry
 Physics
 Engineering
 Architecture
 Art
A line segment is a basic geometric object that has a variety of properties and applications. It is a onedimensional object with a definite length that can be measured in units of length. A line segment can be drawn in any direction and can be extended indefinitely in either direction. Line segments are used in a variety of applications, including geometry, physics, engineering, architecture, and art.
Types of Lines
Lines are one of the most basic elements of geometry. They can be classified into different types based on their properties. Here are some common types of lines:
1. Straight Line
A straight line is a line that extends infinitely in both directions without any bends or curves. It is also known as a Euclidean line.
2. Curved Line
A curved line is a line that changes direction at least once. It can be a simple curve, such as a circle or an ellipse, or a more complex curve, such as a spiral or a parabola.
3. Parallel Lines
Parallel lines are two or more lines that are always the same distance apart and never intersect.
4. Perpendicular Lines
Perpendicular lines are two lines that intersect at a right angle (90 degrees).
5. Skew Lines
Skew lines are two lines that are not parallel and do not intersect.
6. Tangent Line
A tangent line is a line that intersects a curve at a single point and is perpendicular to the curve at that point.
7. Secant Line
A secant line is a line that intersects a curve at two or more points.
8. Asymptote
An asymptote is a line that a curve approaches but never intersects.
9. Axis of Symmetry
An axis of symmetry is a line that divides a figure into two mirror images.
10. Line of Best Fit
A line of best fit is a line that represents the trend of a set of data points.
These are just a few of the many different types of lines that exist. Each type of line has its own unique properties and applications.
General Form of the Equation of a Line
The general form of the equation of a line is:
$$Ax + By + C = 0$$
where:
 $A$ and $B$ are the coefficients of the variables $x$ and $y$, respectively.
 $C$ is a constant.
This equation can be used to represent any line in the plane, regardless of its slope or yintercept.
SlopeIntercept Form
The slopeintercept form of the equation of a line is:
$$y = mx + b$$
where:
 $m$ is the slope of the line.
 $b$ is the yintercept of the line.
This form of the equation is useful for finding the slope and yintercept of a line.
PointSlope Form
The pointslope form of the equation of a line is:
$$y  y_1 = m(x  x_1)$$
where:
 $(x_1, y_1)$ is a point on the line.
 $m$ is the slope of the line.
This form of the equation is useful for finding the equation of a line that passes through a given point.
TwoPoint Form
The twopoint form of the equation of a line is:
$$y  y_1 = \frac{y_2  y_1}{x_2  x_1}(x  x_1)$$
where:
 $(x_1, y_1)$ and $(x_2, y_2)$ are two points on the line.
This form of the equation is useful for finding the equation of a line that passes through two given points.
Intercept Form
The intercept form of the equation of a line is:
$$\frac{x}{a} + \frac{y}{b} = 1$$
where:
 $a$ and $b$ are the x and yintercepts of the line, respectively.
This form of the equation is useful for finding the x and yintercepts of a line.
Slope of a Line
The slope of a line is a measure of how steep it is. It is calculated by dividing the change in y by the change in x.
Calculating Slope
To calculate the slope of a line, you need to know two points on the line. Let’s call these points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2).
The slope of the line is then calculated as follows:
$m = (y2  y1) / (x2  x1)$
where:
 m is the slope of the line
 y2  y1 is the change in y
 x2  x1 is the change in x
Example
Let’s calculate the slope of the line that passes through the points (1, 2) and (3, 4).
m = (4  2) / (3  1) m = 2 / 2 m = 1
Therefore, the slope of the line is 1.
Slope and Steepness
The slope of a line tells you how steep it is. A line with a positive slope is going up from left to right, while a line with a negative slope is going down from left to right.
The steeper the line, the greater the slope. A line with a slope of 1 is steeper than a line with a slope of 0.5.
Slope and Parallel Lines
Parallel lines have the same slope. This is because they are both going in the same direction at the same rate.
Slope and Perpendicular Lines
Perpendicular lines have slopes that are negative reciprocals of each other. This means that if the slope of one line is 2, the slope of the line perpendicular to it will be 1/2.
Applications of Slope
The slope of a line has many applications in real life. For example, it can be used to:
 Calculate the angle of a ramp
 Determine the steepness of a hill
 Find the rate of change of a function
 Graph linear equations
The slope of a line is a measure of how steep it is. It is calculated by dividing the change in y by the change in x. The slope of a line can be used to determine the steepness of a hill, the angle of a ramp, and the rate of change of a function.
Angle Between Two Lines
In geometry, the angle between two lines is the measure of the rotation necessary to align one line with the other. It is measured in degrees, radians, or gradians.
Calculating the Angle Between Two Lines
There are several ways to calculate the angle between two lines. One common method is to use the dot product of the two lines’ direction vectors. The dot product of two vectors is a scalar quantity that is equal to the product of the magnitudes of the two vectors and the cosine of the angle between them.
If the direction vectors of two lines are $ \vec{a} $ and $ \vec{b} $, then the angle $ \theta $ between them can be calculated using the following formula:
$$ \theta = \arccos\left(\frac{\vec{a} \cdot \vec{b}}{ \vec{a}   \vec{b} }\right) $$
where:
 $ \cdot $ is the dot product operator
 $  \vec{a}  $ and $  \vec{b}  $ are the magnitudes of the vectors $ \vec{a} $ and $ \vec{b} $, respectively.
Special Cases
There are a few special cases to consider when calculating the angle between two lines:
 If the two lines are parallel, then the angle between them is 0 degrees.
 If the two lines are perpendicular, then the angle between them is 90 degrees.
 If the two lines are collinear, then the angle between them is undefined.
Applications
The angle between two lines has many applications in various fields, including:
 Geometry: The angle between two lines is used to classify triangles, quadrilaterals, and other polygons.
 Physics: The angle between two forces acting on an object determines the net force and the object’s acceleration.
 Engineering: The angle between two structural members determines the amount of stress and strain on the members.
 Computer graphics: The angle between two lines is used to create 3D objects and animations.
The angle between two lines is a fundamental concept in geometry and has many applications in various fields. By understanding how to calculate the angle between two lines, you can gain a deeper understanding of the world around you.
Equation of a Line in Different Forms
A line is a onedimensional geometric object that extends infinitely in both directions. It can be defined by two points, a point and a slope, or an equation.
SlopeIntercept Form
The slopeintercept form of a line is:
$$y = mx + b$$
where:
 $m$ is the slope of the line
 $b$ is the yintercept of the line
The slope of a line is a measure of how steep it is. It is calculated by dividing the change in $y$ by the change in $x$. The yintercept of a line is the point where the line crosses the $y$axis.
PointSlope Form
The pointslope form of a line is:
$$y  y_1 = m(x  x_1)$$
where:
 $(x_1, y_1)$ is a point on the line
 $m$ is the slope of the line
The pointslope form of a line is useful for finding the equation of a line when you know a point on the line and the slope of the line.
TwoPoint Form
The twopoint form of a line is:
$$y  y_1 = \frac{y_2  y_1}{x_2  x_1}(x  x_1)$$
where:
 $(x_1, y_1)$ and $(x_2, y_2)$ are two points on the line
The twopoint form of a line is useful for finding the equation of a line when you know two points on the line.
Intercept Form
The intercept form of a line is:
$$\frac{x}{a} + \frac{y}{b} = 1$$
where:
 $a$ is the xintercept of the line
 $b$ is the yintercept of the line
The intercept form of a line is useful for finding the equation of a line when you know the xintercept and yintercept of the line.
Normal Form
The normal form of a line is:
$$Ax + By = C$$
where:
 $A$, $B$, and $C$ are constants
The normal form of a line is useful for finding the equation of a line when you know the coefficients of the line.
Converting Between Different Forms
You can convert between different forms of a line by using the following formulas:
 Slopeintercept form to pointslope form:
$$y  y_1 = m(x  x_1)$$
where:

$(x_1, y_1)$ is a point on the line

$m$ is the slope of the line

Pointslope form to slopeintercept form:
$$y = mx + (y_1  mx_1)$$
where:

$(x_1, y_1)$ is a point on the line

$m$ is the slope of the line

Twopoint form to slopeintercept form:
$$y = \frac{y_2  y_1}{x_2  x_1}(x  x_1) + y_1$$
where:

$(x_1, y_1)$ and $(x_2, y_2)$ are two points on the line

Intercept form to slopeintercept form:
$$y = \frac{a}{b}x + \frac{b}{b}$$
where:

$a$ is the xintercept of the line

$b$ is the yintercept of the line

Normal form to slopeintercept form:
$$y = \frac{A}{B}x + \frac{C}{B}$$
where:
 $A$, $B$, and $C$ are constants
Point, Lines and Angles
Point
 A point is a location in space that has no dimensions.
 It is represented by a dot.
 Points are the basic building blocks of geometry.
Line
 A line is a straight path that extends infinitely in both directions.
 It is represented by an arrow.
 Lines can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.
Angle
 An angle is the measure of the amount of rotation between two lines that intersect.
 It is measured in degrees, radians, or gradians.
 Angles can be acute, right, obtuse, or straight.
Types of Angles
 Acute angle: An angle that measures less than 90 degrees.
 Right angle: An angle that measures exactly 90 degrees.
 Obtuse angle: An angle that measures more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees.
 Straight angle: An angle that measures exactly 180 degrees.
Angle Relationships
 Complementary angles: Two angles that add up to 90 degrees.
 Supplementary angles: Two angles that add up to 180 degrees.
 Vertical angles: Two angles that are opposite each other and have the same measure.
Lines and Angles
 Two lines that intersect form four angles.
 The opposite angles are congruent.
 The adjacent angles are supplementary.
Applications of Points, Lines, and Angles
 Points, lines, and angles are used in many different fields, including:
 Mathematics
 Physics
 Engineering
 Architecture
 Art
 Design
Solved Examples on Lines
Example 1: Finding the Equation of a Line Passing Through Two Points
Problem: Find the equation of the line passing through the points $(2, 3)$ and $(4, 7)$.
Solution:
 Calculate the slope of the line using the formula:
$$m = \frac{y_2  y_1}{x_2  x_1}$$
where $(x_1, y_1) = (2, 3)$ and $(x_2, y_2) = (4, 7)$.
$$m = \frac{7  3}{4  2} = \frac{4}{2} = 2$$
 Use the pointslope form of the equation of a line:
$$y  y_1 = m(x  x_1)$$
where $(x_1, y_1)$ is any point on the line and $m$ is the slope.
Substituting the values of $m$, $x_1$, and $y_1$, we get:
$$y  3 = 2(x  2)$$
 Simplify the equation to slopeintercept form:
$$y = 2x  4 + 3$$
$$y = 2x  1$$
Therefore, the equation of the line passing through the points $(2, 3)$ and $(4, 7)$ is $y = 2x  1$.
Example 2: Finding the Intersection Point of Two Lines
Problem: Find the intersection point of the lines $y = 2x + 3$ and $y = x  1$.
Solution:
 Set the two equations equal to each other:
$$2x + 3 = x  1$$
 Solve for $x$:
$$2x  x = 1  3$$
$$x = 4$$
 Substitute the value of $x$ into either equation to find $y$:
$$y = 2(4) + 3 = 5$$
Therefore, the intersection point of the two lines is $(4, 5)$.
Example 3: Finding the Distance Between Two Points
Problem: Find the distance between the points $(3, 4)$ and $(7, 10)$.
Solution:
 Use the distance formula:
$$d = \sqrt{(x_2  x_1)^2 + (y_2  y_1)^2}$$
where $(x_1, y_1) = (3, 4)$ and $(x_2, y_2) = (7, 10)$.
$$d = \sqrt{(7  3)^2 + (10  4)^2}$$
$$d = \sqrt{16 + 36}$$
$$d = \sqrt{52}$$
$$d \approx 7.21$$
Therefore, the distance between the points $(3, 4)$ and $(7, 10)$ is approximately $7.21$ units.