### Maths Interquartile Range

##### Interquartile Range

The interquartile range (IQR) is a measure of variability, or how spread out a data set is. It is calculated by finding the difference between the upper quartile (Q3) and the lower quartile (Q1).

##### Formula

$$IQR = Q3 - Q1$$

##### Interpretation

The IQR tells us that the middle 50% of the data is spread out over a range of 8 units. This means that the data is relatively evenly distributed.

##### Uses of IQR

The IQR can be used to:

- Compare the variability of two or more data sets.
- Identify outliers in a data set.
- Make inferences about the population from which a sample was drawn.

##### Advantages of IQR

The IQR has several advantages over other measures of variability, such as the range and the standard deviation.

- The IQR is not affected by outliers.
- The IQR is easy to calculate.
- The IQR can be interpreted in a straightforward way.

##### Disadvantages of IQR

The IQR also has some disadvantages.

- The IQR can be misleading if the data is not normally distributed.
- The IQR does not take into account the individual values in the data set.

The IQR is a useful measure of variability that is easy to calculate and interpret. However, it is important to be aware of its limitations before using it.

##### Semi-Interquartile Range

The semi-interquartile range (SIQR) is a measure of statistical dispersion, equal to half the interquartile range (IQR). It is used to describe the variability of a data set.

##### Formula

The formula for the semi-interquartile range is:

$$SIQR = \frac{IQR}{2}$$

where IQR is the interquartile range, calculated as the difference between the upper quartile (Q3) and the lower quartile (Q1).

##### Interpretation

The semi-interquartile range represents half the distance between the upper and lower quartiles. It provides information about the spread of the middle 50% of the data. A small SIQR indicates that the data is clustered around the median, while a large SIQR indicates that the data is more spread out.

##### Example

Consider the following data set:

10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50

The median of this data set is 30. The upper quartile (Q3) is 40 and the lower quartile (Q1) is 20. Therefore, the IQR is 40 - 20 = 20. The semi-interquartile range is 20 / 2 = 10.

This means that the middle 50% of the data is spread out over a range of 10 units.

##### Applications

The semi-interquartile range is used in a variety of statistical applications, including:

**Exploratory data analysis:**The SIQR can be used to identify outliers and to assess the overall variability of a data set.**Hypothesis testing:**The SIQR can be used to test hypotheses about the equality of variances between two or more groups.**Regression analysis:**The SIQR can be used to assess the goodness of fit of a regression model.

##### Advantages and Disadvantages

The semi-interquartile range has several advantages over other measures of statistical dispersion, such as the range and the standard deviation.

**Robustness:**The SIQR is not affected by outliers, which makes it a more reliable measure of variability for data sets that contain extreme values.**Simplicity:**The SIQR is easy to calculate and interpret.**Comparability:**The SIQR can be used to compare the variability of different data sets, even if they have different units of measurement.

However, the semi-interquartile range also has some disadvantages.

**Loss of information:**The SIQR only provides information about the variability of the middle 50% of the data. It does not provide any information about the variability of the extreme values.**Sensitivity to sample size:**The SIQR can be affected by the sample size. A larger sample size will typically result in a smaller SIQR.

Overall, the semi-interquartile range is a useful measure of statistical dispersion that is robust, simple to calculate, and comparable across different data sets. However, it is important to be aware of its limitations when using it to analyze data.

##### The formula for interquartile Range

The interquartile range (IQR) is a measure of variability, or how spread out a data set is. It is calculated by subtracting the first quartile (Q1) from the third quartile (Q3).

$$IQR = Q3 - Q1$$

**Q1**is the median of the lower half of the data set.**Q3**is the median of the upper half of the data set.

##### Steps to Calculate Interquartile Range

To calculate the interquartile range, follow these steps:

**Arrange the data set in ascending order.****Find the median (Q2) of the entire data set.**This is the middle value when the data set is arranged in ascending order. If there are two middle values, the median is the average of the two middle values.**Find the median (Q1) of the lower half of the data set.**This is the middle value of the lower half of the data set when arranged in ascending order. If there are two middle values, the median is the average of the two middle values.**Find the median (Q3) of the upper half of the data set.**This is the middle value of the upper half of the data set when arranged in ascending order. If there are two middle values, the median is the average of the two middle values.**Calculate the interquartile range (IQR) by subtracting Q1 from Q3.**

##### Example

Let’s calculate the interquartile range of the following data set:

10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28

**Arrange the data set in ascending order.**

10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28

**Find the median (Q2) of the entire data set.**

The median is the middle value when the data set is arranged in ascending order. In this case, the median is 20.

**Find the median (Q1) of the lower half of the data set.**

The lower half of the data set is:

10, 12, 14, 16, 18

The median of the lower half of the data set is 14.

**Find the median (Q3) of the upper half of the data set.**

The upper half of the data set is:

22, 24, 26, 28

The median of the upper half of the data set is 24.

**Calculate the interquartile range (IQR) by subtracting Q1 from Q3.**

The interquartile range is:

IQR = Q3 - Q1 = 24 - 14 = 10

Therefore, the interquartile range of the data set is 10.

##### Steps to calculate the interquartile range

The interquartile range (IQR) is a measure of variability, or how spread out a set of data is. It is calculated by finding the difference between the upper quartile (Q3) and the lower quartile (Q1).

**To calculate the IQR, follow these steps:**

**Find the median of the data set.**The median is the middle value when the data is arranged in order from smallest to largest. If there are two middle values, the median is the average of the two.**Find the upper quartile (Q3).**The upper quartile is the median of the upper half of the data set. To find Q3, first find the median of the data set. Then, find the median of the upper half of the data set, starting with the value immediately above the median.**Find the lower quartile (Q1).**The lower quartile is the median of the lower half of the data set. To find Q1, first find the median of the data set. Then, find the median of the lower half of the data set, ending with the value immediately below the median.**Calculate the IQR.**The IQR is the difference between Q3 and Q1.

**Here is an example of how to calculate the IQR:**

Data set: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19

- Median = 11
- Q3 = 15
- Q1 = 7
- IQR = Q3 - Q1 = 15 - 7 = 8

The IQR for this data set is 8. This means that the middle 50% of the data is spread out over a range of 8 units.

**The IQR can be used to compare the variability of different data sets.** A larger IQR indicates that the data is more spread out, while a smaller IQR indicates that the data is more clustered together.

**The IQR can also be used to identify outliers.** Outliers are data points that are significantly different from the rest of the data. Outliers can be identified by looking for data points that are more than 1.5 times the IQR above Q3 or below Q1.

*The IQR is a useful measure of variability that can be used to compare data sets and identify outliers.*

##### Interquartile Range Solved Examples

The interquartile range (IQR) is a measure of variability, or how spread out a data set is. It is calculated by subtracting the first quartile (Q1) from the third quartile (Q3).

##### Example 1

Find the IQR of the following data set:

10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28

**Solution:**

First, we need to find the median of the data set. The median is the middle value when the data is arranged in order from smallest to largest. In this case, the median is 18.

Next, we need to find Q1 and Q3. Q1 is the median of the lower half of the data set, and Q3 is the median of the upper half of the data set. In this case, Q1 is 14 and Q3 is 22.

Finally, we can calculate the IQR by subtracting Q1 from Q3:

IQR = Q3 - Q1 IQR = 22 - 14 IQR = 8

Therefore, the IQR of the given data set is 8.

##### Example 2

Find the IQR of the following data set:

5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50

**Solution:**

In this case, the median is 25. Q1 is 15 and Q3 is 35.

Therefore, the IQR is:

IQR = Q3 - Q1 IQR = 35 - 15 IQR = 20

Therefore, the IQR of the given data set is 20.

##### Example 3

Find the IQR of the following data set:

2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20

**Solution:**

In this case, the median is 10. Q1 is 6 and Q3 is 14.

Therefore, the IQR is:

IQR = Q3 - Q1

IQR = 14 - 6

IQR = 8

Therefore, the IQR of the given data set is 8.

##### Interquartile Range FAQs

##### What is the interquartile range (IQR)?

The interquartile range (IQR) is a measure of variability, or how spread out a set of data is. It is calculated by subtracting the first quartile (Q1) from the third quartile (Q3).

##### What is the difference between the IQR and the range?

The range is the difference between the largest and smallest values in a data set. The IQR is a more robust measure of variability because it is not affected by outliers.

##### How is the IQR calculated?

The IQR is calculated by following these steps:

- Find the median of the data set.
- Find the median of the lower half of the data set. This is Q1.
- Find the median of the upper half of the data set. This is Q3.
- Subtract Q1 from Q3.

##### What is a good IQR?

A good IQR is one that is relatively small. This means that the data is not very spread out.

##### What is a large IQR?

A large IQR is one that is relatively large. This means that the data is very spread out.

##### What are some of the uses of the IQR?

The IQR can be used to:

- Compare the variability of two or more data sets.
- Identify outliers.
- Make inferences about the population from which a sample was drawn.

##### Conclusion

The IQR is a useful measure of variability that can be used to understand the distribution of data. It is a robust measure that is not affected by outliers.