Maths Gamma Distribution
Gamma Distribution
The gamma distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is widely used in statistics to model waiting times, life spans, and other nonnegative random variables. It is a twoparameter distribution, with shape parameter $\alpha>0$ and rate parameter $\beta>0$.
Probability Density Function
The probability density function (PDF) of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$f(x) = \frac{\beta^\alpha}{\Gamma(\alpha)} x^{\alpha1} e^{\beta x}$$
where $\Gamma(\alpha)$ is the gamma function, defined as:
$$\Gamma(\alpha) = \int_0^\infty x^{\alpha1} e^{x} dx$$
Cumulative Distribution Function
The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$F(x) = \frac{1}{\Gamma(\alpha)} \int_0^x t^{\alpha1} e^{t} dt$$
Gamma distribution Formula
The gamma distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is widely used in statistics to model waiting times, life spans, and other nonnegative random variables. It is defined by two parameters: the shape parameter $\alpha$ and the rate parameter $\beta$.
Probability Density Function
The probability density function (PDF) of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$f(x) = \frac{\beta^{\alpha}}{\Gamma(\alpha)} x^{\alpha1} e^{\beta x}$$
where:
 $x$ is the random variable
 $\alpha$ is the shape parameter
 $\beta$ is the rate parameter
 $\Gamma(\alpha)$ is the gamma function, which is defined as:
$$\Gamma(\alpha) = \int_0^{\infty} t^{\alpha1} e^{t} dt$$
Cumulative Distribution Function
The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$F(x) = \frac{1}{\Gamma(\alpha)} \int_0^x t^{\alpha1} e^{\beta t} dt$$
Mean and Variance
The mean and variance of the gamma distribution are given by:
 Mean: $E(X) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta}$
 Variance: $V(X) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta^2}$
Gamma distribution mean and variance
The gamma distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is widely used in statistics to model waiting times, lifetimes, and other nonnegative random variables. It is a twoparameter distribution, with shape parameter $\alpha$ and rate parameter $\beta$.
Mean of the Gamma Distribution
The mean of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$E(X) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta}$$
where:
 $E(X)$ is the mean of the gamma distribution
 $\alpha$ is the shape parameter
 $\beta$ is the rate parameter
Variance of the Gamma Distribution
The variance of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$V(X) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta^2}$$
where:
 $V(X)$ is the variance of the gamma distribution
 $\alpha$ is the shape parameter
 $\beta$ is the rate parameter
Relationship between Mean and Variance
The mean and variance of the gamma distribution are related by the following equation:
$$V(X) = E(X)^2$$
This means that the variance of the gamma distribution is equal to the square of the mean.
Example
Suppose we have a gamma distribution with shape parameter $\alpha = 3$ and rate parameter $\beta = 2$. Then the mean and variance of this distribution are:
$$E(X) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta} = \frac{3}{2} = 1.5$$
$$V(X) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta^2} = \frac{3}{4} = 0.75$$
Therefore, the mean of this gamma distribution is 1.5 and the variance is 0.75.
Gamma distribution properties
The gamma distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is widely used in statistics to model waiting times, life spans, and other nonnegative random variables. It is a twoparameter distribution, with shape parameter $\alpha$ and rate parameter $\beta$.
Properties of the Gamma Distribution
The gamma distribution has a number of important properties, including:

Shape: The shape of the gamma distribution is determined by the shape parameter $\alpha$. When $\alpha$ is small, the distribution is skewed to the right, and as $\alpha$ increases, the distribution becomes more symmetric.

Mean: The mean of the gamma distribution is given by $\frac{\alpha}{\beta}$.

Variance: The variance of the gamma distribution is given by $\frac{\alpha}{\beta^2}$.

Skewness: The skewness of the gamma distribution is given by $\frac{2}{\sqrt{\alpha}}$.

Excess kurtosis: The excess kurtosis of the gamma distribution is given by $\frac{6}{\alpha}$.
The gamma distribution is a versatile and powerful probability distribution that has a wide range of applications. Its properties make it a useful tool for modeling a variety of nonnegative random variables.
Gamma distribution plot
The gamma distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is widely used in statistics to model waiting times, life spans, and other nonnegative random variables. It is a twoparameter distribution, with shape parameter $\alpha$ and rate parameter $\beta$.
Probability Density Function
The probability density function (PDF) of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$f(x) = \frac{\beta^\alpha}{\Gamma(\alpha)} x^{\alpha1} e^{\beta x}$$
where:
 $x$ is the random variable
 $\alpha$ is the shape parameter
 $\beta$ is the rate parameter
 $\Gamma(\alpha)$ is the gamma function
Shape of the Gamma Distribution
The shape of the gamma distribution depends on the values of the shape and rate parameters.
 When $\alpha < 1$, the distribution is skewed to the right.
 When $\alpha = 1$, the distribution is exponential.
 When $\alpha > 1$, the distribution is skewed to the left.
Rate of the Gamma Distribution
The rate parameter $\beta$ controls the spread of the distribution. A larger value of $\beta$ results in a narrower distribution, while a smaller value of $\beta$ results in a wider distribution.
The gamma distribution is a versatile distribution that can be used to model a wide variety of nonnegative random variables.
Gamma distribution applications
The gamma distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is widely used in various fields to model a wide range of phenomena. Here are some of the key applications of the gamma distribution:
1. Reliability and Survival Analysis:
 The gamma distribution is commonly used in reliability engineering and survival analysis to model the time to failure or the lifetime of components or systems. It is particularly useful when the failure rates increase over time, known as an increasing failure rate.
2. Insurance and Actuarial Science:
 In insurance and actuarial science, the gamma distribution is employed to model the claim amounts or the time between insurance claims. It is particularly relevant when dealing with skewed data or longtailed distributions.
3. Finance and Risk Management:
 The gamma distribution finds applications in financial modeling and risk management. It is used to model the distribution of asset returns, option prices, and credit risk.
4. Hydrology and Environmental Science:
 In hydrology and environmental science, the gamma distribution is used to model the distribution of rainfall amounts, river flows, and other environmental variables.
5. Biomedical and Health Sciences:
 In biomedical and health sciences, the gamma distribution is used to model the distribution of survival times, disease progression, and other healthrelated outcomes.
6. Quality Control and Six Sigma:
 The gamma distribution is employed in quality control and Six Sigma methodologies to model the distribution of process measurements and to assess process capability.
7. Image Processing and Computer Vision:
 In image processing and computer vision, the gamma distribution is used to model the distribution of pixel intensities and to enhance image contrast.
8. Astronomy and Astrophysics:
 In astronomy and astrophysics, the gamma distribution is used to model the distribution of stellar magnitudes, luminosities, and other astronomical observations.
9. Queuing Theory and Operations Research:
 The gamma distribution is utilized in queuing theory and operations research to model the distribution of waiting times, service times, and other queuingrelated variables.
10. Statistical Inference and Bayesian Analysis:
 The gamma distribution serves as a conjugate prior distribution in Bayesian analysis for certain statistical models, such as the Poissongamma model and the negative binomial distribution.
These are just a few examples of the diverse applications of the gamma distribution across various fields. Its flexibility and ability to model a wide range of phenomena make it a valuable tool for statistical modeling and analysis.
Gamma Distribution FAQs
What is the gamma distribution?
The gamma distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is used to model the waiting time until a specified number of events have occurred. It is a generalization of the exponential distribution, which is used to model the waiting time until the first event occurs.
What are the parameters of the gamma distribution?
The gamma distribution has two parameters: the shape parameter $\alpha$ and the rate parameter $\beta$. The shape parameter controls the shape of the distribution, while the rate parameter controls the spread of the distribution.
What is the probability density function of the gamma distribution?
The probability density function of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$f(x) = \frac{\beta^{\alpha}}{\Gamma(\alpha)} x^{\alpha1} e^{\beta x}$$
where $x$ is the random variable, $\alpha$ is the shape parameter, $\beta$ is the rate parameter, and $\Gamma(\alpha)$ is the gamma function.
What is the mean of the gamma distribution?
The mean of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$E(X) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta}$$
What is the variance of the gamma distribution?
The variance of the gamma distribution is given by:
$$V(X) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta^2}$$
What are some applications of the gamma distribution?
The gamma distribution is used in a variety of applications, including:
 Reliability engineering: The gamma distribution is used to model the distribution of failure times of components.
 Insurance: The gamma distribution is used to model the distribution of claim sizes.
 Finance: The gamma distribution is used to model the distribution of stock returns.
 Hydrology: The gamma distribution is used to model the distribution of rainfall amounts.
How is the gamma distribution related to other distributions?
The gamma distribution is related to a number of other distributions, including:
 The exponential distribution: The gamma distribution is a generalization of the exponential distribution.
 The chisquared distribution: The chisquared distribution is a special case of the gamma distribution with $\alpha = \frac{1}{2}$.
 The Erlang distribution: The Erlang distribution is a special case of the gamma distribution with $\alpha = n$, where $n$ is a positive integer.