Chemistry Arrhenius Equation
Arrhenius Equation
The Arrhenius equation is a mathematical equation that describes the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the temperature at which it occurs. It was proposed by the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius in 1889.
Equation
The Arrhenius equation is given by:
$$ k = Ae^{(Ea/RT)} $$
where:
 k is the rate constant of the reaction
 A is the preexponential factor
 Ea is the activation energy of the reaction
 R is the ideal gas constant
 T is the temperature in Kelvin
Interpretation
The Arrhenius equation shows that the rate of a chemical reaction increases with increasing temperature. This is because higher temperatures provide more energy to the reactants, which allows them to overcome the activation energy barrier and react.
The preexponential factor, A, is a constant that depends on the specific reaction. It represents the frequency of collisions between reactants that have enough energy to react.
The activation energy, Ea, is the minimum amount of energy that must be supplied to the reactants in order for them to react. It is a measure of the difficulty of the reaction.
Limitations
The Arrhenius equation is a simplified model that does not take into account all of the factors that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Some of the limitations of the Arrhenius equation include:
 It assumes that the reaction is elementary, meaning that it occurs in a single step.
 It does not take into account the effects of concentration on the rate of reaction.
 It does not take into account the effects of catalysts on the rate of reaction.
Despite its limitations, the Arrhenius equation is a useful tool for understanding the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the temperature at which it occurs.
Arrhenius Equation Graph
The Arrhenius equation is a mathematical equation that describes the relationship between the rate constant of a chemical reaction and the temperature at which the reaction occurs. The equation was developed by Svante Arrhenius in the late 19th century, and it is one of the most important equations in chemical kinetics.
The Equation
The Arrhenius equation is given by the following equation:
$$ k = Ae^{(Ea/RT)} $$
where:
 k is the rate constant of the reaction
 A is the preexponential factor
 Ea is the activation energy of the reaction
 R is the ideal gas constant
 T is the temperature in Kelvin
The Graph
The Arrhenius equation can be graphed by plotting the natural logarithm of the rate constant (ln k) versus the inverse of the temperature (1/T). This will produce a straight line with a slope of Ea/R. The yintercept of the line is ln A.
PreExponential Factor in Arrhenius Equation
The Arrhenius equation is a fundamental equation in chemical kinetics that describes the relationship between the rate constant of a chemical reaction and the temperature. It is given by:
$$k = Ae^{\frac{Ea}{RT}}$$
Where:
 $k$ is the rate constant
 $A$ is the preexponential factor
 $E_a$ is the activation energy
 $R$ is the ideal gas constant
 $T$ is the temperature in Kelvin
The preexponential factor, $A$, is a constant that is independent of temperature. It is a measure of the frequency of collisions between reactant molecules that have enough energy to react. The preexponential factor can be calculated using the following equation:
$$A = \frac{kT}{h}e^{\frac{\Delta S^{\ddagger}}{R}}$$
Where:
 $k$ is the Boltzmann constant
 $h$ is the Planck constant
 $\Delta S^{\ddagger}$ is the entropy of activation
The entropy of activation is a measure of the disorder of the activated complex, which is the highest energy state that the reactants must reach in order to react. A positive entropy of activation indicates that the activated complex is more disordered than the reactants, while a negative entropy of activation indicates that the activated complex is more ordered than the reactants.
The preexponential factor is an important parameter in the Arrhenius equation because it provides information about the frequency of collisions between reactant molecules and the entropy of activation. This information can be used to understand the mechanism of a chemical reaction and to predict the rate of the reaction at different temperatures.
Significance of PreExponential Factor
The preexponential factor, $A$, in the Arrhenius equation has several important implications:

Collision Frequency: The preexponential factor is related to the frequency of collisions between reactant molecules that have enough energy to react. A higher preexponential factor indicates that there are more collisions between reactant molecules with sufficient energy, which leads to a faster reaction rate.

Reaction Mechanism: The preexponential factor can provide insights into the reaction mechanism. For example, a low preexponential factor may indicate that the reaction involves a complex mechanism with multiple steps, while a high preexponential factor may indicate a simple reaction mechanism with a single step.

Temperature Dependence: The preexponential factor is independent of temperature, which means that the rate constant of a reaction increases exponentially with temperature. This is because the number of collisions between reactant molecules with sufficient energy increases as the temperature increases.

Activation Energy: The preexponential factor is related to the activation energy of the reaction. A higher activation energy leads to a lower preexponential factor, and vice versa. This is because a higher activation energy means that fewer reactant molecules have enough energy to react, which leads to a lower collision frequency.
Overall, the preexponential factor is a crucial parameter in the Arrhenius equation that provides valuable information about the reaction mechanism, collision frequency, temperature dependence, and activation energy of a chemical reaction.
Applications of Arrhenius Equation
The Arrhenius equation is a fundamental equation in chemical kinetics that relates the rate constant of a chemical reaction to the temperature. It is given by the equation:
$$k = Ae^{Ea/RT}$$
where:
 $k$ is the rate constant
 $A$ is the preexponential factor
 $Ea$ is the activation energy
 $R$ is the ideal gas constant
 $T$ is the temperature in Kelvin
The Arrhenius equation has a number of important applications in chemistry, including:
1. Determining the Activation Energy of a Reaction
The activation energy of a reaction is the minimum energy that must be supplied to the reactants in order for the reaction to occur. The Arrhenius equation can be used to determine the activation energy of a reaction by plotting the natural logarithm of the rate constant versus the inverse of the temperature. The slope of this plot is equal to $Ea/R$.
2. Predicting the Rate of a Reaction at a Given Temperature
The Arrhenius equation can be used to predict the rate of a reaction at a given temperature if the activation energy and the preexponential factor are known. This information can be used to design experiments and optimize reaction conditions.
3. Understanding the Temperature Dependence of Reaction Rates
The Arrhenius equation shows that the rate of a reaction increases with temperature. This is because the higher the temperature, the more molecules have enough energy to overcome the activation energy barrier and react.
4. Designing Catalysts
Catalysts are substances that speed up the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the reaction. Catalysts work by lowering the activation energy of the reaction. The Arrhenius equation can be used to design catalysts by identifying the steps in the reaction mechanism that have high activation energies and then designing molecules that can bind to the reactants and lower these activation energies.
5. Studying the Effects of Inhibitors
Inhibitors are substances that slow down the rate of a reaction. Inhibitors work by binding to the reactants or the catalyst and preventing them from reacting. The Arrhenius equation can be used to study the effects of inhibitors by measuring the change in the rate of the reaction when an inhibitor is added.
The Arrhenius equation is a powerful tool for understanding the kinetics of chemical reactions. It has a wide range of applications in chemistry, including determining the activation energy of a reaction, predicting the rate of a reaction at a given temperature, understanding the temperature dependence of reaction rates, designing catalysts, and studying the effects of inhibitors.
Solved Examples on Arrhenius Equation
The Arrhenius equation is a mathematical equation that describes the relationship between the rate constant of a chemical reaction and the temperature. It is given by the equation:
$$k = Ae^{\frac{Ea}{RT}}$$
where:
 k is the rate constant
 A is the preexponential factor
 Ea is the activation energy
 R is the ideal gas constant
 T is the temperature in Kelvin
Example 1
A chemical reaction has a rate constant of 0.01 s$^{1}$ at 25°C. The activation energy for the reaction is 100 kJ/mol. What is the rate constant at 50°C?
Solution:
We can use the Arrhenius equation to calculate the rate constant at 50°C. We first need to convert the temperature to Kelvin:
$$T_1 = 25°C + 273.15 = 298.15 K$$
$$T_2 = 50°C + 273.15 = 323.15 K$$
We can now plug these values into the Arrhenius equation:
$$k_2 = Ae^{\frac{Ea}{RT_2}}$$
$$k_2 = (0.01 s^{1})e^{\frac{100 kJ/mol}{(8.314 J/mol K)(323.15 K)}}$$
$$k_2 = 0.02 s^{1}$$
Therefore, the rate constant at 50°C is 0.02 s$^{1}$.
Example 2
A chemical reaction has a preexponential factor of 1.0 x 10$^{12}$ s$^{1}$ and an activation energy of 200 kJ/mol. What is the rate constant at 100°C?
Solution:
We can use the Arrhenius equation to calculate the rate constant at 100°C. We first need to convert the temperature to Kelvin:
$$T = 100°C + 273.15 = 373.15 K$$
We can now plug these values into the Arrhenius equation:
$$k = Ae^{\frac{Ea}{RT}}$$
$$k = (1.0 x 10^{12} s^{1})e^{\frac{200 kJ/mol}{(8.314 J/mol K)(373.15 K)}}$$
$$k = 2.4 x 10^8 s^{1}$$
Therefore, the rate constant at 100°C is 2.4 x 10$^8$ s$^{1}$.
Arrhenius Equation FAQs
What is the Arrhenius equation?
The Arrhenius equation is a mathematical equation that describes the relationship between the rate constant of a chemical reaction and the temperature at which the reaction occurs. It was developed by the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius in the late 19th century.
What does the Arrhenius equation look like?
The Arrhenius equation is typically written in the following form:
$$ k = Ae^{(Ea/RT)} $$
where:
 k is the rate constant of the reaction
 A is the preexponential factor
 Ea is the activation energy of the reaction
 R is the ideal gas constant
 T is the temperature in Kelvin
What is the preexponential factor?
The preexponential factor is a constant that represents the frequency of collisions between reactant molecules that have enough energy to react. It is also known as the collision frequency factor.
What is the activation energy?
The activation energy is the minimum amount of energy that must be supplied to reactant molecules in order for them to react. It is also known as the energy barrier.
What is the ideal gas constant?
The ideal gas constant is a constant that relates the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas. It is equal to 8.314 J/mol·K.
How is the Arrhenius equation used?
The Arrhenius equation can be used to:
 Predict the rate of a chemical reaction at a given temperature
 Determine the activation energy of a chemical reaction
 Compare the rates of different chemical reactions
What are some limitations of the Arrhenius equation?
The Arrhenius equation is a simplified model of the relationship between the rate constant of a chemical reaction and the temperature. It does not take into account the effects of other factors, such as the concentration of reactants, the presence of catalysts, and the solvent.
Conclusion
The Arrhenius equation is a useful tool for understanding the kinetics of chemical reactions. It can be used to predict the rate of a reaction, determine the activation energy, and compare the rates of different reactions. However, it is important to be aware of the limitations of the equation and to use it in conjunction with other experimental data.